Sunday, August 31, 2014

This Type Of Learning/Enrichment Activities

There is a slight difference between "learning with activities". In the dictionary of the language of Indonesia, learning is a process, a way, deeds makes people or living beings learn. While the activity is an activity; effort; jobs; strength and agility (in trying); excitement. From the difference, it could be explained that the enrichment learning experiences which are given to students who go beyond minimum requirements prescribed by the curriculum (not all students can do it). While in enrichment activities are activities that are given to students in the fast Group leverages the advantages of time so that they have the knowledge that is richer and better skills. There is really no fundamental difference between the enrichment learning activities for the enrichmen

In selecting and implementing the activities for the enrichment, the teacher needs to pay attention to whether that activity in accordance with the characteristics of the enrichment activities. What are the characteristics of these enrichment activities? According to Guskey in Julaeha (2007) there are two characteristics of the enrichment activities, namely: 
  1. the enrichment Activities are activities that are fun and give you the satisfaction of control (not a repetition of previous learning activities). 
  2. Enrichment activity is an activity that should be challenging for students who are demanding the application of higher-order cognitive abilities (analysis, sistesis, evaluation, and creation).
A. types of Enrichment Learning 
according to Mone (2008) in the Guide organization of the Learning Enrichment, there are at least three types of enrichment learning, namely: 
  1. exploratory Activities are presented to students in the form of historical events, books, community leaders, and so on that are not covered in the regular curriculum. 
  2. Process skills needed by students in order to succeed in doing the study topics of interest in the form of independent learning. 
  3. Problem solving by students who have the ability to learn quickly is a real problem-solving using a problem-solving approach. It is characterized by problem solving: 
  • the identification of the problems will be solved, 
  • the determination of the focus issue/problem to be solved, 
  • the use of various sources of supporting data collection, 
  • using relevant techniques, 
  • data analysis, 
  • results of a false assertion.
B. types of Enrichment Activities
in designing and implementing activities for the enrichment, teacher applying individual approach. Enrichment activities more flexible compared to the activity of remedial. This means that the enrichment activities in order to utilize the remaining time is an activity that is fun and can stimulate the creativity of the students independently. There are several activities that can be designed and implemented by teachers in relation to enrichment. The following are some enrichment activities expressed by Julaeha (2007):
  1. Peer Tutor in addition to effective peer tutors, remedial activities also effectively used in enrichment activities. Through peer tutor keiatan, understanding the concept of a student will increase because they will have to master the concepts will be explained they must also seek techniques to explain the concept to his friend. In addition Peer tutors can also develop a high level of cognitive ability. 
  2. Develop Training Group Students quickly can be asked to develop practical exercises which can be carried out by peers who are slow. This activity can be done to the detriment of material that requires a lot of practice, for instance in the subjects of mathematics. The teacher can also ask the students to create a quick group problems exercises along with the answer that will be used in the remedial activities or as an exercise in peer tutor activities.
  3. Develop Media and learning resources Student groups are given the opportunity to make quick work of the model, the game or the paper related to the materials studied was then utilized as a learning resource for students groups later. 
  4. Does the project student involvement in a project or prepare a special report relating to the matter being studied is the most enjoyable enrichment activities. This activity can increase the motivation to learn, opportunities to develop talent, and add new insights for students groups quickly.
  5. Give the game, problems or the competence of among students in this activity, the teacher can give assignments to students to solve a problem or game related to the subject matter that they feel challenged. Through these activities, they will try to solve the problem or a game and they will also learn from each other by comparing the strategies/techniques they use in solving problems or games provided. 

That's some kind of learning enrichment and enrichment activities that can be designed and implemented by teachers in order to help students to develop an insight so that its potential is growing optimally. Teachers can determine and choose their own enrichment activities provided in accordance with the characteristics of the enrichment activities. Hopefully useful!

Motivating Student

Students who are not prepared to follow the learning process will not be able to achieve the goals that have been set. Motivation is the way that teachers can do to prepare students to be ready to follow the learning process to be implemented. Sulitkah motivating students? For teachers who are professional and have extensive education insights is certainly not difficult to motivate students. But what about the teachers who have less insight? For teachers who actually have less insight, motivate students it's very easy to do, simply turn the Palm of the hand. The thing is, if students are motivated?

Keep in mind that the development of a person is influenced by three factors (according to the experts) are: congenital factors, environmental factors, and congenital factors & environment. I took we agree because most education experts also agreed that the development of a person affected by congenital factors and environmental factors. If the role of the innate factor by 50% then environmental factors that 50% was divided into three and again i.e.

  1. family environmental factors, is the most main environment affects the development and growth of students. A family needs to create a good environment to create an atmosphere of learning that can provide an opportunity to students to be able to grow and develop optimally and irregularities do not occur. 
  2. school environmental factors, is the student environment where he studied through a figure called the teacher. In this environment the students actually had only one purpose and that is to learn (autobiography). If the atmosphere in the school environment is not conducive, it will be very difficult to achieve the learning objectives that had been planned by the teacher. 
  3. environmental factors of society, is the social environment where students interact with the world outside the family environment. The environmental community is very great influence on the development of the child.
Students are motivated by the teacher when it is being studied and is in the school environment. How much influence the motivation of the teachers if compared with the motivation that comes from the surrounding community and family environment?. If I may berandai least not only 30% of 50% (environmental factors) influence. Well what if given the motivation of teachers affected it is not strong enough? Certainly environmental factors of the family and the community will be very dominant affect students. This is where the necessary expertise is a teacher who really professional. Teachers are able to motivate so as to provide the dominant influence for students.

On the other hand, the teacher as the cutting edge of education usually become scapegoats in the Community (not the Government) If students studying in schools in the framework of education could not attain the expected competency. Whereas in sekolahpun there are other factors including schools and infrastructure means the Government's role in motivating students not less important.Unfortunately those factors are less taken into account by the community. 

There is a sort of paradigm developing in society: If students are clever/smart, then asked people is: "a child who he is?" But, if the stupid students then asked people is: "who the hell is her teacher, how really stupid?" Sorry for the teachers if heard as what I heard of it!

Saturday, August 30, 2014

Methods Of Teaching Fellow (Peer Teaching Methods)

There was the time a teacher suffered a deadlock in choosing effective methods for applied learning process in order to achieve the expected competencies mastered by students. Although various learning methods, determine which method is most suitable to be applied is not easy work. This is actually a teacher prosecuted keprofesionalannya as educators, counselors, and teachers

In General, students are very interested in new things. On the basis that a teacher must jelly in select the learning method to students staying motivated and keen to learn. Methods of teaching fellow (peer teaching methods) can be used as an option to meet it. Just don't get too often applied due to the effect, the study will ultimately monotonous and boring student.

Peer teaching method is a technique of delivering learning through peer or help themselves. Starting from the discussion of the matter until an assessment is also made of and by the students in the group itself (self assessment and peer assessment). As for the value of the end is a merger between the assessment by teachers and peers. From the defenisi, the teacher should be able to modify the method of peer teaching to fit the student applied for SD (high grade) especially on the part of his assessment.

Cooperative learning with this technique can be implemented in conjunction with the method of discussion. Prerequisites for implementing learning with peer teaching method in the class, there are some students who have to fast (smart) and all students are likely to have relevant knowledge base.

Step-by-step method teaching fellow (peer teaching methods) 
  1. Teacher explains the topic, learning objectives, and measures/activities that will be undertaken by students 
  2. to divide students into several groups of 4-6 students evenly (each group there is a clever student)
  3. in the company of his students learn from and with another fellow in a way of mutual benefit as well as the sharing of knowledge, ideas, and experiences of each. 
  4. Each Member of the group being sued gave their own opinions as well as responses that will be merged in a single conclusion. 
  5. Each group formulated the results of its discussions in one conclusion on the basis of mutual agreement. 
  6. A few minutes later (about 20 minutes) one of the members of each group are taking turns teaching the results of his findings in the presence of other groups. 
  7. Each group was asked to give a response (criticism, suggestions, opinions, questions, comments, etc.) and discuss differences of opinion until the problem is resolved every 
  8. problem that comes up is noted by teachers and given the solution 
  9. Teachers give conclusion problems and solving them, so each student's understanding of the uniform. 
  10. The assessment is done by teachers during the learning process is ongoing (especially in step 3)

Benefits of peer teaching method 
  • Improving students ' learning motivation
  • Improve the quality of the learning process 
  • Enhances the interactive social learning 
  • Encourages students in students towards higher-order thinking skills are 
  • Developed to work in groups
  • Improve the sense of responsibility for their own learning 
  • Build a spirit of working together
  • Train the skills of communicating 
  • Improve the results of learning

Disadvantages of peer teaching method 
  • Requires a relatively long time 
  • If students do not have the relevant knowledge base then this method ineffective 
  • Likely dominated by students who love to talk, clever, or who want to accentuate themselves 
  • Not all teachers truly understand how each students work in groups 
  • Need to be modified to fit applied to students (this technique is usually applied in college) 
  • Requires extra strict teacher attention

Research results Lyn Longaretti, et al (The University of Melbourne)-Centre for Development of Teaching and Learning (CDTL). National University of Singapore, at: http://www.cdtl.nus.edu.sg/

Writing by Dictation

Writers have different thinking styles that can determine the most effective way for them to record their thoughts. A writer who is very good at verbalizing may consider using dictation as a method to write. Recent advances in speech-to-text software makes this a viable choice. Fiction writing seems the most suitable to the writing by diction method. There are advantages and disadvantages in this method. 
Questions you may have include:
  1. What styles of thinking affect writing?
  2. How does diction work?
  3. What are the pros and cons of this method?

This lesson will answer those questions. There is a mini-quiz near the end of the lesson.

Thinking styles affect writing
People have different ways of thinking and expressing their thoughts. Some can easily visualize what they want to say and put those pictures into words on paper, while others who think in terms of sounds and can easily explain their ideas verbally. There are some people who are extreme in only one style of thinking. Most of us work in both modes but have a preference of one over the other.

Visual thinkers
If you can visualize what you want to say, you are probably best at expressing your thoughts on a word processor or by writing in longhand. Some visual thinkers also think in a very organized manner. They may prefer to work with outlining word processors to document (and organize) their thoughts.
It may be difficult for a visual thinker to write by dictation, although it is worth a try.

Auditory thinkers
If you often think in terms of sounds you are called an auditory thinker. You can explain your ideas verbally but struggle to put those thoughts on paper. If you prefer to work in this mode, dictation methods may be a solution for material written.

Dictation methods
Methods to use dictation to put your thoughts on paper include using a typist to transcribe your dictation and using speech-to-text software.

Having a typist transcribe dictation
Dictating to a secretary who writes down your thoughts in shorthand used to be practiced in many business offices. It really isn't a viable writing method and is just stated for historical purposes.

Another dictation method is to speak into a tape recorder and then have a typist transcribe the material into text. You may be your own typist or use a professional transcriber or secretary to do the typing. This method has been used for years in the business community for writing memos and letters.

Earle Stanley Gardner
Writer Earle Stanley Gardner, who originated and wrote the Perry Mason series of books, dictated a major portion of his material. The story goes to that Gardner originally wrote his stories on a manual typewriter until his fingers bled. Seeking a better method, he turned to dictating the stories into a tape recorder and having secretaries transcribe the material into print. At one time he had nine secretaries transcribing at one time. He was a very prolific writer.

Using speech-to-text software
The modern method is to use speech recognition or speech-to-text software that allows a you to dictate directly into a microphone that is attached to your computer. The material is then automatically translated into text in a word processor. It is done with reasonable accuracy, and if something doesn't look right, you can easily delete it with a verbal command and correct it or start over.

Nuance's Dragon NaturallySpeaking is the top speech recognition application. They have versions ranging from Standard to Professional, depending on the features needed. You can buy Dragon NaturallySpeaking 9 Standard for about $82. They claim a 99% accuracy rate.

Using digital recorder
You can also use certain digital recorders to express your thoughts and then convert your recording into text automatically at a later time. In such a case, you need Dragon NaturallySpeaking 10 Preferred to transcribe audio from a digital recorder in speech-to-text. The program accepts MP3 and WMA audio files.

Use an Olympus WS-300M 256 MB Digital Voice Recorder that can be purchased for about $79. The recorder is very compact and can double as a music player. If you want more music playing capabilities, you can buy the 1 GB version, which of course costs more. The nice thing about this recorder is that you can directly plug it into your computer's USB port to download your audio files. No extra software is required to put the audio files onto your hard drive.

Once your dictation file is on your hard drive, you select it from Dragon NaturallySpeaking, and the program transcribes your story material in Word or other word processor. The software even has a playback feature that will read your text back to you.

Pros and cons of dictation
There are advantages and disadvantages to using dictation methods to create and write material.

One advantage of dictating your thoughts is that it speeds up the writing process. Also, if you think verbally, you may lose good thoughts during the slow typing process. Another advantage of dictation is that it is a good to way to input written notes, taken at a meeting, lecture or seminar.

Seems best with fiction
Writing fiction is especially suitable to dictation. Writing a screenplay would be also work well with dictation. When writing fiction, TV or screenplays, dictation can be used to act out the roles of your characters during the writing process.

One reason that fiction may be especially suitable to dictation is the fact that often the creative process is more free-association. Fiction is not as structured as technical writing, which is often easily outlined with numbered steps. Another factor is that the writer can often get "into character" and create conversations during the dictation process.

One disadvantage of dictation is that it can be cumbersome and takes some practice. Dictation software is fairly accurate, but you still need to be aware of errors or incorrect words. Also, you can often organize your thoughts better when writing or typing. Verbal communication is linear, where writing allows you to skip around.

Another drawback to dictation is that most people think visually, rather than completely verbally.

Dictation software is a great tool to enhance your writing. Some people can be highly creative through dictation, while others may struggle with it. Experiment to see how you best perform with the use of this technique of writing.

Ramadhan Market in Samarinda