Friday, April 25, 2014

Teacher Work Discipline

Discipline is very necessary work of teachers by a teacher in carrying out their duties. Discipline is the operational functions of human resource management. Discipline is the most important operative function better as a discipline of employees, the higher labor discipline that can be achieved. Labor discipline can be interpreted as a form of respect for the person's behavior in the regulations and comply with certain provisions in connection with the work. 

Without good discipline then it will be very difficult for a company to achieve optimum results. Good discipline is a reflection of the magnitude of one's sense of responsibility will be duty he received. With the discipline will encourage morale, to achieve company goals.

Labor discipline teacher wants to implementation of all existing regulations and in case of breach action should be taken . Action for mistakes made in the form of penalties or sanctions can be firm and not negotiable . An expert defines the discipline is a choice in life to get what they want by running what is really undesirable .

After doing the actual undesirable in some time , eventually becoming disciplined choices in life in order to get what one wants to undergo what is now finally wants to do . A person can be disciplined and ultimately enjoy it after a few years of living it .

Elements which are bound in the work discipline of teachers is the lack of legislation , guidelines for implementation , sanctions, awareness and willingness to comply with the guidelines and strengthen the organization . From the description it could be explained that the discipline of work is a form of awareness and willingness of workers to respect and obey, and obey the rules applicable laws either written or unwritten rules to be ready to bear the consequences of sanctions for wrongdoing.

Discipline is a requirement that must exist for all who want to build a new habit . The new man will get a new habit when he has the discipline to run it continuously without ever lost in a specified time interval .

Ethics of a Teacher

In the Indonesian teacher ethics written clearly that teachers guide students to make them fully human Pancasila minded. Ethics for teachers is the student participants, the work and the workplace. The Ethics must be owned by a teacher to create a good learning process.

Teachers should set a good example for his students. Exemplary embodiment of a teacher is the realization of learning activities and instill an attitude of confidence to the students. Teachers who look good and polite will affect student attitudes and vice versa. Also in an example to the students, the teacher should be an example of how to be objective and open to criticism and respect the opinions of others. 

Teachers should be able to influence and control his . Personal behavior and the teacher will be a powerful part to change student behavior. Teachers should appreciate the potential that exists in the diversity of students . A teacher in the education should not only prioritize science or intellectual development , but also should pay attention to the personal development of their students either physical or spiritual development .

Ethics is a professional teacher next to the job. As a teacher is a noble job. Teachers should serve society in the field of professional education . In order to provide a satisfactory service to the public then the teacher should be able to adjust the ability and knowledge to the wishes and demands of society .

The next is the professional workplace. A good atmosphere in the workplace can increase productivity . That teacher performance can not be optimal due to the working environment does not guarantee the fulfillment of the duties and obligations of teachers optimally .

Contextual learning approach can be thought of for teachers to be more creative . Learning strategies that help teachers to link with the subject matter will encourage students to associate the situation existing knowledge with its application in everyday life . Professional attitude of teachers in the workplace is to create a harmonious relationship in the workplace and the environment . Ethics teachers are needed in order to improve the quality of national education .

Funcion Of Teacher

The function of the teacher and their meaning in today's shrinking where teachers are those who teach in schools. Those who are in an institution or training courses are not called by the teacher but a tutor or coach. Though both are still acting like a teacher who teaches new things on the pupil. 

Teacher merit so great in helping the growth and development of students. Teachers have a role and a very important function to shape the child's personality in order to prepare and develop human resources. There are some functions of the teacher, the first is as an educator.

Teachers as educators where teachers become role models and identification for the students and the environment. For that, a teacher must have a certain quality standard that include responsibility, self-discipline and authority. Functions other than teachers as tutors and mentors are influenced by various factors such as motivation, student relationships with teachers, verbal skills, a sense of security as well as the teacher's ability to communicate.

Teachers also serves as a mentor and in this case concerning the physical and mental well protégé. Teachers are leaders in which teachers are expected to have a personality and knowledge to lead their students. Other functions that served as the manager of teacher learning. Here, besides the teacher must master a variety of teaching methods, teachers should always increase the knowledge and skills that are not outdated.

The function of the other is a teacher as a model and example. Teachers as role models and personal course what the teacher will always get the spotlight students and people in their environment. Teacher behavior will affect students, but students must have the courage to develop his own personality.

Teachers also serves as a driver of creativity. Creativity is very important in the learning process. Here teachers are required to demonstrate and show the process of creativity. A creativity can be seen from the activity to create something that did not previously exist and was not done by someone else or a tendency to create something new. As a result of the teacher's function then the teacher will always strive to find better ways to serve the students so that the students get creative.

4 Competencies that should be possessed by Professional Teachers

Teachers are one of the important elements that must exist after the students. If a teacher does not have a professional attitude in students so that students would be difficult to grow and develop properly. This is because the teacher is one of the cornerstone for the country in terms of education. With the professional and qualified teachers will be able to print the quality of the nation as well. The key that must be possessed by every teacher is competence. Competence is a set of knowledge and teaching skills of teachers in carrying out his professional duties as a teacher so that the purpose of education can be achieved with either.

Meanwhile, competency standards contained in the regulations of the Minister of National Education regarding standards of academic qualifications and competence of teachers in which the regulation states that professional teachers should have 4 professional competence of teachers that pedagogical competence and personal competence, 

Professional and social competence. 4 professional competence of the teacher must be owned by a teacher through professional education for one year. 

Here is the explanation 4 professional competence of teachers:
1. Competence Pedagogy
his competency concerns the ability of a teacher to understand the characteristics or capabilities of students through a variety of ways. The main way is by understanding the cognitive development of students through student, designed the study and implementation of learning and development evaluation of student learning outcomes at the same time. 

2. Competence Personality 

This personal competence is one of personal ability to be possessed by professional teachers in a manner that reflects the personality of both yourself, be prudent and wise, be mature and dignified and noble character has to be a good role model.

3. Competence Professional 

Professional competence is one of the elements that must be owned by a teacher that is by mastering the learning material is broad and deep. 

4. The Social Competence 

Social competence is one of the competencies that should be possessed by an educator through the proper way to communicate with students and the entire teaching force or also with the parents / guardians of students and the surrounding community.

Sunday, April 20, 2014

Curriculum-Based Character Education 2013

Curriculum-Based Character Education 2013, a new curriculum that was initiated by the Ministry of Education and Culture, to replace the Education Unit Level Curriculum. Curriculum 2013 is a curriculum that promotes the understanding, skills, and character education, students are required to understand the materials, active in the discussions and presentations as well as have high discipline manners. This curriculum replaces the Education Unit Level Curriculum in place since 2006. In 2013 Curriculum subjects compulsory for all students in the educational unit on each unit or lesson pendidikan.Mata level option followed by learners selected according to the choice of the subject group mereka.Kedua (compulsory and optional) are mainly developed in the structure curriculum of secondary education (high school and vocational) while considering the age and psychological development of students aged 7-15 years it has not been given the choice of subjects for elementary and junior high school students. 

SMA Negeri 68 Jakarta is the first school in Indonesia to implement this curriculum.

Aspect
Knowledge 
Knowledge of the curriculum in 2013 the same as the previous curriculums, namely the emphasis on students level understanding in lessons. The value of the aspect of knowledge can be gained from Deuteronomy Daily, Middle Exam / End of Semester, and Increase Class Exam. In the 2013 curriculum, Knowledge is not the main aspect as in previous curriculums. 

Skills
Skills is a new aspect of the curriculum in Indonesia. Skills is an emphasis on skills or abilities. example is the ability to express opinions, talking with / deliberation, create reports, and presentations. Skills aspect is one important aspect because only with knowledge, students can not distribute that knowledge so just be mere theory. 

Attitude 
Attitude aspect is the most difficult aspect to assess. Attitudes include manners, etiquette in learning, attendance, social, and religious. Difficulties in the assessment of this aspect because the teacher did not at any time supervise its students. So that an assessment is not so effective.

Elementary School Lesson 
religious and moral 
education of Pancasila and Citizenship Education Indonesian 
Mathematics 
Natural Sciences 
Social Sciences Culture Arts and crafts (Including Local content) 
Physical Education and Health (Including Local content) 
Regional Language (In accordance with the respective school policies respectively) All subjects in Elementary School presented a unified integrative. 

First Intermediate Group A (Mandatory) 
religious and moral 
education of Pancasila and Citizenship Education Indonesian 
Mathematics 
Natural Sciences 
Social Sciences 
English 
Group B (Mandatory) 
Cultural Arts (Arts / Music / Dance / Theatre) 
Physical Education and Health craft ( Engineering / Craft) 
Entrepreneurship and Regional Languages ​​(In accordance with school policy, respectively) 

Upper Intermediate Group A (Mandatory) 
religious and moral 
education of Pancasila and Citizenship Education 
Math 
History Indonesia 
Indonesian 
English 
Group B (Mandatory) 
Cultural Arts (Fine / Music / Dance / Theatre) 
craft Physical and Health Education (Engineering / Craft) and 
Entrepreneurship 

Group C (Specialisation)












Learning Report
Learning report or report card on Curriculum 2013 and the abolition written by interval ranking system. This is done to reduce competition among students. Assessment on Report Card 2013 curriculum is divided into three columns, namely Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes. Each column value (Knowledge and Skills) subdivided into 2 columns are columns of numbers and letters columns, each column is filled using interval values. Intervals are as follows:

Wednesday, April 2, 2014

EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING


Experiential learning is learning through reflection on doing, which is often contrasted with rote or didactic learning. Experiential learning is related to, but not synonymous with, experiential education, action learning, adventure learning, free choice learning, cooperative learning, and service learning. While there are relationships and connections between all these theories of education, importantly they are also separate terms with separate meanings.

Experiential learning focuses on the learning process for the individual. It is often used synonymously with the phrase experiential education, however, while experiential learning considers the individual learning process, experiential education should be considered a broader philosophy of education. As such, it is concerned with issues such as the relationship of teacher and student, as well as broader issues of educational structure and objectives. An example of experiential learning is going to the zoo and learning through observation and interaction with the zoo environment, as opposed to reading about animals from a book. Thus, one makes discoveries and experiments with knowledge firsthand, instead of hearing or reading about others' experiences. In business school, internship, and job-shadowing opportunities in a student’s field of interest are elevated as examples of valuable experiential learning which contribute significantly to the student’s overall understanding of the real-time environment.

A third example of experiential learning is learning how to ride a bike, a process which can illustrate the widely known four-step experiential learning model (ELM) as purported by Kolb and outlined in Figure 1 below. Following this example, in the "concrete experience" stage, the learner physically experiences the bike in the "here-and-now".This experience forms "the basis for observation and reflection" and he or she has the opportunity to consider what is working or failing (reflective observation), and think about ways to improve on the next attempt made at riding it (abstract conceptualization). Every new attempt to ride is informed by a cyclical pattern of previous experience, thought and reflection (active experimentation).

Figure 1 –
David Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model (ELM)


Experiential learning can exist without a teacher and relates solely to the meaning making process of the individual's direct experience. However, though the gaining of knowledge is an inherent process that occurs naturally, for a genuine learning experience to occur, there must exist certain elements. According to David A. Kolb, an American educational theorist, knowledge is continuously gained through both personal and environmental experiences. He states that in order to gain genuine knowledge from an experience, certain abilities are required:
  •  The learner must be willing to be actively involved in the experience;
  • The learner must be able to reflect on the experience;
  • The learner must possess and use analytical skills to conceptualize the experience; and
  • The learner must possess decision making and problem solving skills in order to use the new ideas gained from the experience.

Implementation
Experiential activities are among the most powerful teaching and learning tools available. Experiential learning requires self-initiative, an "intention to learn" and an "active phase of learning". Kolb's cycle of experiential learning can be used as a framework for considering the different stages involved. Jennifer A. Moon has elaborated on this cycle to argue that experiential learning is most effective when it involves: 1) a "reflective learning phase" 2) a phase of learning resulting from the actions inherent to experiential learning, and 3) "a further phase of learning from feedback". This process of learning can result in "changes in judgment, feeling or skills" for the individual and can provide direction for the "making of judgments as a guide to choice and action".

Most educators understand the important role experience plays in the learning process. The role of emotion and feelings in learning from experience has been recognised as an important part of experiential learning. While those factors may improve the likelihood of experiential learning occurring, it can occur without them. Rather, what is vital in experiential learning is that the individual is encouraged to directly involve themselves in the experience, and then to reflect on their experiences using analytic skills, in order that they gain a better understanding of the new knowledge and retain the information for a longer time.

Reflection is a crucial part of the experiential learning process, and like experiential learning itself, it can be facilitated or independent. Dewey wrote that "successive portions of reflective thought grow out of one another and support one another", creating a scaffold for further learning, and allowing for further experiences and reflection. This reinforces the fact that experiential learning and reflective learning are iterative processes, and the learning builds and develops with further reflection and experience. Facilitation of experiential learning and reflection is challenging, but "a skilled facilitator, asking the right questions and guiding reflective conversation before, during, and after an experience, can help open a gateway to powerful new thinking and learning". Jacobson and Ruddy, building on Kolb's four-stage Experiential Learning Model  and Pfeiffer and Jones's five stage Experiential Learning Cycle, took these theoretical frameworks and created a simple, practical questioning model for facilitators to use in promoting critical reflection in experiential learning. Their "5 Questions" model is as follows:
  • Did you notice...?
  • Why did that happen?
  • Does that happen in life?
  • Why does that happen?
  • How can you use that?

These questions are posed by the facilitator after an experience, and gradually lead the group towards a critical reflection on their experience, and an understanding of how they can apply the learning to their own life. Although the questions are simple, they allow a relatively inexperienced facilitator to apply the theories of Kolb, Pfeiffer, and Jones, and deepen the learning of the group.

While it is the learner's experience that is most important to the learning process, it is also important not to forget the wealth of experience a good facilitator also brings to the situation. However, while a "facilitator", traditionally called a "teacher", may improve the likelihood of experiential learning occurring, a "facilitator" is not essential to experiential learning. Rather, the mechanism of experiential learning is the learner's reflection on experiences using analytic skills. This can occur without the presence of a facilitator, meaning that experiential learning is not defined by the presence of a facilitator. Yet, by considering experiential learning in developing course or program content, it provides an opportunity to develop a framework for adapting varying teaching/learning techniques into the classroom.

Experiential learning in schools
Think Global School is a four-year traveling high school that holds classes in a new country each term. Students engage in experiential learning through activities such as workshops, cultural exchanges, museum tours, and nature expeditions.
The Dawson School in Boulder, Colorado, devotes two weeks of each school year to experiential learning, with students visiting surrounding states to engage in community service, visit museums and scientific institutions, and engage in activities such as mountain biking, backpacking, and canoeing.

Experiential learning in business education
As higher education continues to adapt to new expectations from students, experiential learning in business and accounting programs has become more important. For example, Clark & White (2010) point out that "a quality university business education program must include an experiential learning component". With reference to this study, employers note that graduating students need to build skills in “professionalism” – which can be taught via experiential learning. Students also value this learning as much as industry.

Learning styles also impact business education in the classroom. Kolb transposes four learning styles, Diverger, Assimilator, Accommodator and Converger, atop the Experiential Learning Model, using the four experiential learning stages to carve out "four quadrants", one for each learning style. An individual’s dominant learning style can be identified by taking Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory (LSI). Robert Loo (2002) undertook a meta-analysis of 8 studies which revealed that Kolb’s learning styles were not equally distributed among business majors in the sample. More specifically, results indicated that there appears to be a high proportion of assimilators and a lower proportion of accommodators than expected for business majors. Not surprisingly, within the accounting sub-sample there was a higher proportion of convergers and a lower proportion of accommodators. Similarly, in the finance sub-sample, a higher proportion of assimilators and lower proportion of divergers was apparent. Within the marketing sub-sample there was an equal distribution of styles. This would provide some evidence to suggest that while it is useful for educators to be aware of common learning styles within business and accounting programs, they should be encouraging students to use all four learning styles appropriately and students should use a wide range of learning methods.

Professional education applications, also known as management training or organizational development, apply experiential learning techniques in training employees at all levels within the business and professional environment. Training board games simulating business and professional situations such as the Beer Distribution Game used to teach supply chain management, and the Friday Night at the ER game used to teach systems thinking, are used in business training efforts.

Comparisons
Experiential learning is most easily compared with academic learning, the process of acquiring information through the study of a subject without the necessity for direct experience. While the dimensions of experiential learning are analysis, initiative, and immersion, the dimensions of academic learning are constructive learning and reproductive learning. Though both methods aim at instilling new knowledge in the learner, academic learning does so through more abstract, classroom-based techniques, whereas experiential learning actively involves the learner in a concrete experience.

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