Friday, June 29, 2012

The difference between Western and Eastern education

People tend to think that Westerners are more assertive and creative, while Easterners are more conservative and reserved. So what makes all these difference? I would suggest it is the result of the different education systems. Having studied under both foreign and local teachers, I discovered that their approaches to teaching are fundamentally different. In this essay, I would like to examine and evaluate these differences. This is vitally important as it influences our choices and responses in life beyond school. And will finally determine our values, the quality of our lives and the satisfaction we derive from life.

A. Teacher-centered and student-centered
I would say that the prime difference between the two education systems is that one uses teacher-centered classes, and the other uses student-centered classes. In the Eastern education system, the teacher is the only authority; his or her words are not to be questioned. Students are not expected to speak up in class or respond to the questions that the teacher asks. Therefore, most of the questions are rather rhetorical. Questions are brought up for the teachers to answer. Thus, there is no motivation for the students to be active. This leads to a very unusually phenomenon, the students sleeping in class. Students of the Western education system, on the contrary, participate more in class. They have class or group discussions and they are forced to express opinions,
which are valued. In this way, students also listen to others ideas, which make them not only learn from the teachers, but also their peers.

B. Memorizing and understanding
The way students learn individually (not as members of a class) also differs from East to West. For instance, Eastern education is mainly based on book learning and memorization. They focus on classics and exams. Teachers often have to rush through the textbooks to meet the deadline of every monthly examination. Hence, students learn from memorizing facts, which are often forgotten after a short period of time, rather than understanding. And the lack of understanding all the facts results in the need for cram schools.

However, sometimes students put too much dependence on cram schools and often exhaust themselves, which can easily pull down the efficiency of learning. I noticed that recently teachers tried to train us in the ability to analyze and organize information we receive, but exams put pressure on students to ignore this, since memorizing information is the key to winning points. Somehow the community has formed a rather queer concept that certificates and scores are believed to represent ability. In the end, all we are best at doing is scoring high in exams or getting a diploma. Even our attitude and behavior is graded by numbers. The truth is, however, that most of us show lack of efficiency in solving problems we are confronted, and oftentimes we find difficulties when it comes to organizing activities or our daily routine. We are so competitive but were still not in step with the more advanced countries.

If we take a look in the Western way, they have a comparatively relaxed pace of learning. This allows better and deeper understanding of the topic they are working on. They spend more time on class and group discussion in order to know how to speak up logically and learn to accept other peoples opinions. They are often given assignments in the format of a report or project and will have to do their own research and gradually develop their independence. Presentations are also expected to be given properly with a clear voice and information, good time-control and stable eye contact. The skill of taking notes directly from the teachers lecture replaces following lifeless textbooks. This is the education of training students to be provided with skills they will need in their further studies and future careers.

C. Conformity and originality
The Eastern education system puts a great deal of emphasis on conformity. There are tons of school rules to follow and students are expected to line up like troops when attending assembly. Rules like: sneakers and socks have to be white or black, shirts need to be tucked in, and no makeup or nail polish is allowedare common. I personally dont think these issues have anything to do with ones attitude.

All students are basically graded by scores they get in the exams. The disadvantage of this is that some students might study around the clock but still fail and this would terribly cut down the interest they have towards studies. The Eastern education system seems to be working on producing perfect, zero-mistakesstudents. Any action thats out of the ordinary is regarded as some sort of rebellion and will be questioned or punished. Occupations like doctors and lawyers are regarded as decent jobs to do while being an artist or designer is not so respected by others since in our education system, only those who score low in exams attend vocational schools. This prevents those with special talents from developing into professionals.

Unlike the Eastern system, in the Western education system, mistakes are considered positive. There is no doubt that humans at least once in a while make mistakes, and for Westerners, these are simply steps towards learning and are perfect chances to mature. In contrast to the Eastern grading system, they grade students by assessment of their performance. This way, students who put lots of effort to their studies can be satisfied with the grades they get and will maintain the motivation to keep up the good work and those who dont work hard also learn that lack of effort is not sufficient to earn a good outcome. Originality and extracurricular activities are highlighted and encouraged, activities like a donation contest, visiting an orphanage or building houses for the poor. Consequently, they produce more artists and designers that dominate the fashion trends and create a more concerned community.

D. Relationship between teachers and students
Traditionally, the relationship between teachers and students has always been tense between students and teachers in Eastern culture. Teachers are meant to be respected and sometimes students even have to bear teachersbad temper. No matter how familiar we are with a teacher, it is not easy for us to automatically talk to them about our concerns. Some dont even speak freely with their peers.

Students under Western education generally are more willing to speak about their problems to their counselors and are more flexible about other peoples advice. This is also due to the fact that Westerners consider emotional problems as something normal and always try to be optimistic about them. Through lots of discussions and debates in class, teachers have the status of an assistant or guide instead of a director.

It should be clear from the preceding discussion that there are some definite differences between the two education systems. Both have their advantages and disadvantages. Western education encourages people to pursue their true interests, producing a broad range of skills and areas of expertise. Eastern education, on the other hand, discourages the pursuit of learning that has no strictly practical purpose, such as visual and performing arts. Eastern education, however, is an efficient way of training people to perform tasks that require quick and precise thinking.

Confucius is known to be the greatest teacher ever. In schools, we are taught about all the famous lines that he said. Things like The teacher should teach differently according to every students conditionare familiar to all of us, but do we see it inside our education? Its very ironic that we have the greatest teacher ever but we produce robotstudents. Surely there are some wonderful teachers showing up now and then, but if the whole system doesnt change, it would be difficult to just rely on this small portion of teachers.

Overall, I would say that the advantages of Western education outweigh its shortcomings. Western education produces people who are able to make choices more consistent with their own true interests. Therefore, they ultimately achieve more satisfying lives. This gives them the motivation to follow their interest with passion which drives them to become leaders in their chosen field. In the East, seniors often tell us to equip ourselves so that we will have the ability to help others after becoming an adult, but the West lets students participate in charity work since childhood or adolescence and this gradually becomes one of their habits. In actual fact, there is so much we can do even if we are only seventeen or eighteen.

In addition to individual consequences, the education system also has an impact at the social level. For example, the two education systems produce different values. Eastern education gives out the concept that working is the main purpose of life. While this creates some social stability, it also means that the spiritual life of each person is easy to impoverish. On the contrary, Westerners know better how to relish life and this world. I believe if we want our society to be more progressive and be in line with the most advanced countries, there is definitely a need to reform our education system.

Peer Teaching

Peer Teaching is a learning method that are trendy right now. Even in PLPG Teacher Certification will be one of the material. Peer teaching is a method that makes the students do not get bored, while the teachers did not feel bored. Here are excerpts Peer teaching material which I quoted from the findings prepared by the class action Suntusia, S.Pd. Good insight into materials for training teachers who will had a PLPG.

Peer Teaching in Indonesian or better known as peer tutors, there are some experts who examined this issue among others, is the Edward L. Dejnozken and David E. Coupling in the sense of American Education Encyclopedia mentions peer tutors are as follows: Peer Tutor is a procedure to teach students other students. The first type are teachers and learners of the same age. The second type is the teacher who was older than the learner. Another type of exchange sometimes raised the age of teachers. Muntasir in programmed instruction book suggests that the Tutor works as a handyman or the executor of teaching, way of teaching has been prepared specifically and in detail.

Another function is the presence of peer tutor students who are less active as aktf because no longer embarrassed to ask questions and to voice opinions freely, as expressed by M. Saleh Muntasir that the interaction between the tutor with his pupils that they can realize what is buried deep in his heart, and imagination.

Thus, the system of teaching by peer tutors will assist students who are less able or less quick to accept the lessons of his teacher. Peer tutors for student activities is an activity that is rich in the actual experience is the need of the student. Tutor or ditutori equally benefited, the tutor will get the experience, being a ditutori be more creative in their lessons. Some opinions on the above, and the author's experience in the field, convinced me to apply the peer tutor in the learning KKPI. It seems easier for students to issue an opinion or thought and trouble to his own rather than to teachers, students are more shy and embarrassed. This is possible because some students have formed their own language, behavior, feelings and questions that can be accepted by all students. While peer assessment is an assessment of students' activities by the tutor, of course with the criteria that had been predetermined.

Thursday, June 21, 2012

Children's level of intelligence is inherited from the mother?

Have you heard the suggestion "a smart look for a wife in order to have a child who is smart because intelligence is derived from a mother". However, you must be confused and wondering, is how the intelligence was inherited from the mother? whether intelligence can be improved? and what affect intelligence?

To answer these questions, the following descriptions that might be your reference.

Is Intelligence Inherited?
Towards the end of 1997, a scientist announced that he had found a gene on chromosome 6 intelligence. The average person has a specific sequence in the gene they will be, but the children are intelligent with an IQ of 160 who examined him has a somewhat different sequence of the gene IGF2R TSB. Robert Plomin discovery was soon mired in controversy. There's not much debate that took place in the history of science as powerful as the debate over intelligence. Intelligence with IQ test parameters themselves are controversial. In the late 1990s, many scientists introduced another intelligence: emotional, spiritual, quotience adversity, etc.. One expert, Howard Gardner, and even has defined nine different types of intelligences, including visual intelligence, verbal intelligence, musical intelligence, wit and even athletics. This latter study it seems more fair. Said Mozart, Hemingway, or Zidane is more stupid than the Newton, is now going to sound pretty silly.
Another study conducted Thomas Bouchard. Started th 1979, he assembled a separate twin pairs from around the world and test their personality and IQ. Unexpected results of this study is the correlation between adopted children who grew up with turned out to zero. That is, there is no influence of family upbringing on IQ. If not family farm, then what determines the IQ? The answer is the role of a mother's womb! According to another study, the influence of events occurring in utero to the intelligence of a three times greater than anything done by the parents after the baby is born.
The conclusion to be drawn from earlier studies is, this time according to Ridley, that roughly half of the IQ we have gained through inheritance, and less than 20% came from the family farm. The rest came from the womb, school, and peers. Inheritance as children's IQ portion of approximately 45%, whereas in the late teens up to 75%. In line with the growth, the child gradually express their innate intelligence and leave earlier influences that infused others. Finally, although legitimate proven that intelligence is inherited, inheritance does not mean that can not be changed. Innate intelligence plays an important role, as the influence of environmental care can not be underestimated. Take the baby from a couple of quantum mechanics professor and doctorate in molecular biology, and then enlarging it in the Middle of Nowhere, a place where children suffering from diseas and other negative things. and wait until seventeen years later we will prove the conclusion of Ridley.

Who's More Involved in Bequeath Intelligence in Children?
Genetic factors influence a mother is the intelligence of children. According to geneticists from UMC Nijmegen Netherlands Dr Ben Hamel "The influence was so great because of the intelligence level of someone associated with the X chromosome from the mother".
Therefore, intelligent women who gave birth to a child who has great potential too smart. "Thus, it is better to have an intelligent mothers than fathers who are intelligent," said Hamel. However, genetic disorders of the mother can also pass along to their children, including mental retardation.
Under normal circumstances, every human being has 23 pairs of chromosomes consisting of 22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes and a pair of sex chromosomes. There are 23 chromosomes come from the mother called XX and 23 pairs of chromosomes from the father again called the XY chromosomes.
Chromosome from the father and mother will be joining the event of fertilization, the encounter between sperm and egg cells that would generate the zygote. Under normal circumstances, the zygote will perform a mitotic cell division so that each cell in the human body will carry the same genetic information.
The brain is said to have the ability to function optimally if Kreativ and innovative thinking at the right time. To get the brain cells to function optimally, in addition to genetic factors, are also influenced by nutritional intake, and external stimulation.
Genetically inherited from either parent, nutrition and stimulation from the outside depends on how we meet the nutritional needs of children, and caring for children, whether the game, the interaction of parents and children. Educational games and a lot of creativity inviting children would be better for brain development is complete. Intelligence so that in fact it is the accumulation of genetic, nutritional supply and stimulation. With the sense that although parents have good genetics, but she is not given good food and without it intellect is stimulated it will not appear perfect.
How A Mother Important Role in Children's Inheritance Intelligence?
How can a mother be a determinant of children's intelligence? Perhaps this question will sound less beautiful ears of men because it is basically a child born out of a meeting between the sperm (male) and ovum (female) through the process of fertilization in which after the fertilization process, the two gamete cells will be merged into one and form a zygote then divides into morula, blastula, gastrula, and differentiate into small living in the uterus which is called a fetus (fetus).
Ovum is a gamete cell consisting of a complete cell nucleus and cytoplasm with the organelles that will play a role in the process of cell division and multiplication. Gametes are sperm cells made up of the head and tail with the cell nucleus that contain mitochondria as a conduit of energy for sperm movement. As explained previously that 14 hours after fertilization the sperm tail containing the mitochondria will be removed and discarded, ovum and sperm cell nuclei would fuse into one, forming a new cell (zygote) 2n. Zygote nucleus is a combination of sperm and ovum nucleus and cytoplasm while the cell organelles derived from the ovum cell organelles. From this description it can be seen that the percentage is greater than the role of ovum sperm in the next cell division activity.
This is where the mother role in determining the beginning of intelligence, namely through the mitochondria. Interestingly, mitochondria are inherited only by mothers, not fathers. Therefore, the mitochondria from the egg rather than sperm cells (as listed earlier). In every human cell there is a very strategic organelles function. These organelles called mitochondria. Hollow oval organelles, membranes composed of two layers of membrane, the membrane bulging into the cavity (matrix), and contains many respiratory enzymes. The main task of mitochondria is to produce the body's chemical called ATP (adenosine tri phosphate). The reaction of the ATP energy that is the source of energy for humans. Mitochondria are semiautonomous because 40 percent of the proteins and enzymes produced by the genes. Mitochondria are one-one part of a cell's own DNA, the rest of the gene resulting in the cell nucleus. That's why a mother's investment in the child reaches 75 percent.
In conclusion, based on the description of the 3 questions above. In theory, the intelligence of children may be strongly influenced by the intelligence of a mother. However, the phenotype (appearance) that we see is not merely the result of genetic factors but also the result of interaction with the environment.
What about you? Are you interested in finding a wife in the hope that smart your kids are also smart in the future. But the important thing is how will the way you educate your children to have good character and noble manners. Is not that the more mainstream

Thursday, June 7, 2012

Realize the dream of children starts at home

Happy to see the kids healthy, smart and funny. Behavior and his adorable often makes parents feel amazed, delighted and happy. Children with all the advantages and disadvantages to living in a family to be colored. Its presence can make parents become more enthusiastic about life. Children gave more energy to the parents in achieving their dreams and hopes, can live happier and better in the future.

Realizing dreams and hopes through the child would need a good accompaniment. Action since he was little respect for the child is an effort to create a good personality. Honoring a young child as well as adults to respect their parents can cultivate good qualities, humble and confident. Humble nature of the child will grow up through the behavior of his parents, as the older people still respect even to small children. Children to be confident as always appreciated parents' positive action.

Respect the child can be done by pledging to use the language both spoken and polite, calling the child as well, say thank you when your child help or do something good, say sorry when parents make mistakes, do not yell, scold or even beat when he did a mistake.

Independent child, humble, confident, responsible, good moral and discipline is the hope of all parents and everyone's dream. To that end, the Prophet advised parents to always respect and help the child. The trick is to accept even a small business, to forgive his mistake, do not burden him with a heavy load and did not scold him with a curse that hurt him (Quraish Shihab: 2007).

How Sweet is Dreaming

Every man in this world would ever dream of.

Dreams are expectations that bind our interest on something.

Unfortunately, from many people who never dreamed of, only a few of them can able to realize his dream.

Well, how come? So the dream was difficult to achieve it? Want to know the answer?

The answer is quite simple, "a winner when he dreamed that he would soon wake up to realize his dreams while a loser when he dreamed he would continue his sleep."

So if you want to fulfill every dream you have, get up with a winner mentally.

Just face it and enjoy the process you have to pass the time after him.

But if you just went to sleep for the sake of continuing a lost dream, to dream whenever anything as beautiful as it will always be only a dream and never become real.

Is simple isn't?

Unfortunately, few people are able to do so.

Education System and Education Problematics in Indonesia

Indonesia is a country whose quality of education is still low when compared with other countries and even fellow ASEAN member countries...