Saturday, December 27, 2014

New Year's Resolution

A New Year's resolution is a secular tradition, most common in the Western Hemisphere but also found in the Eastern Hemisphere, in which a person makes a promise to do an act of self-improvement or something slightly nice, such as opening doors for people beginning from New Year's Day.

Religious origins
The ancient Babylonians made promises to their gods at the start of each year that they would return borrowed objects and pay their debts.

The Romans began each year by making promises to the god Janus, for whom the month of January is named.

In the Medieval era, the knights took the "peacock vow" at the end of the Christmas season each year to re-affirm their commitment to chivalry.

At watchnight services, many Christians prepare for the year ahead by praying and making these resolutions.

There are other religious parallels to this tradition. During Judaism's New Year, Rosh Hashanah, through the High Holidays and culminating in Yom Kippur (the Day of Atonement), one is to reflect upon one's wrongdoings over the year and both seek and offer forgiveness. People may act similarly during the Catholic fasting period of Lent, though the motive behind this holiday is more of sacrifice than of responsibility, in fact the practice of New Year's resolutions partially came from the Lenten sacrifices. The concept, regardless of creed, is to reflect upon self-improvement annually.

At the end of the Great Depression, about a quarter of American adults formed New Year's resolutions. At the start of the 21st century, about 40% did.

Popular goals
Early 20th-century New Year's resolution postcards
Some examples include resolutions to donate to the poor more often, to become more assertive, or to become more environmentally responsible.

Popular goals include resolutions to:
  • Improve physical well-being: eat healthy food, lose weight, exercise more, eat better, drink less alcohol, quit smoking, stop biting nails, get rid of old bad habits
  • Improve mental well-being: think positive, laugh more often, enjoy life
  • Improve finances: get out of debt, save money, make small investments
  • Improve career: perform better at current job, get a better job, establish own business
  • Improve education: improve grades, get a better education, learn something new (such as a foreign language or music), study often, read more books, improve talents
  • Improve self: become more organized, reduce stress, be less grumpy, manage time, be more independent, perhaps watch less television, play fewer sitting-down video games
  • Take a trip
  • Volunteer to help others, practice life skills, use civic virtue, give to charity, volunteer to work part-time in a charity organization (NGO)
  • Get along better with people, improve social skills, enhance social intelligence
  • Make new friends
  • Spend quality time with family members
  • Settle down, get engaged/get married, have kids
  • Try foreign foods, discovering new cultures
  • Pray more, be closer to God, be more spiritual
  • Be more involved in sports or different activities

Success rate
A 2007 study by Richard Wiseman from the University of Bristol involving 3,000 people showed that 88% of those who set New Year resolutions fail, despite the fact that 52% of the study's participants were confident of success at the beginning. Men achieved their goal 22% more often when they engaged in goal setting, (a system where small measurable goals are being set; such as, a pound a week, instead of saying "lose weight"), while women succeeded 10% more when they made their goals public and got support from their friends.

It is also noted that talking with a counselor about setting goals and new year resolutions can help people keep their resolutions.

New Year's Eve History

New Year's Day is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar used in the Roman Empire since 45 BC. Romans originally dedicated New Year's Day to Janus, the god of gates, doors, and beginnings for whom the first month of the year (January) is named. Later, as a date in the Gregorian calendar of Christendom, New Year's Day liturgically marked the Feast of the Circumcision of Christ, and is still observed as such in the Anglican Church and Lutheran Church. In present day, with most countries now using the Gregorian calendar as their de facto calendar, New Year's Day is probably the world's most celebrated public holiday, often observed with fireworks at the stroke of midnight as the new year starts in each time zone.


In Christendom, under which the Gregorian Calendar developed, New Year's Day traditionally marks the Feast of the Circumcision of Christ, which is still observed as such by the Anglican Church and the Lutheran Church.

Mesopotamia (Iraq) created the concept of new year celebration 2000 BC.The Romans dedicated New Year's Day to Janus, the god of gates, doors, and beginnings for whom the first month of the year (January) is also named. After Julius Caesar reformed the calendar in 46 BC and was subsequently murdered, the Roman Senate voted to deify him on the 1st January 42 BC in honor of his life and his institution of the new rationalized calendar.The month originally owes its name to the deity Janus, who had two faces, one looking forward and the other looking backward. This suggests that New Year's celebrations are founded on pagan traditions. Some have suggested this occurred in 153 BC, when it was stipulated that the two annual consuls (after whose names the years were identified) entered into office on that day, though no consensus exists on the matter.  Dates in March, coinciding with the spring equinox, or commemorating the Annunciation of Jesus, along with a variety of Christian feast dates were used throughout the Middle Ages, though calendars often continued to display the months in columns running from January to December.

Among the 7th century pagans of Flanders and the Netherlands, it was the custom to exchange gifts at the New Year. This was a pagan custom deplored by Saint Eligius (died 659 or 660), who warned the Flemings and Dutchmen, "(Do not) make vetulas, [little figures of the Old Woman], little deer or iotticos or set tables [for the house-elf, compare Puck] at night or exchange New Year gifts or supply superfluous drinks [another Yule custom]." The quote is from the vita of Eligius written by his companion, Ouen.

Most countries in Western Europe officially adopted January 1 as New Year's Day somewhat before they adopted the Gregorian calendar. In England, until the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in 1752, the first day of the new year was the Feast of the Annunciation on March 25, also called "Lady Day". The March 25 date was known as Annunciation Style; the January 1 date was known as Circumcision Style, because this was the date of the Feast of the Circumcision, considered to be the eighth day of Christ's life, counting from December 25 when his birth is celebrated. This day was christened as the beginning of the New Year by Pope Gregory as he designed the Liturgical Calendar.

New Year's Days in other calendars
In cultures which traditionally or currently use calendars other than the Gregorian, New Year's Day is often also an important celebration. Some countries concurrently use the Gregorian and another calendar. New Year's Day in the alternative calendar attracts alternative celebrations of that new year:

Ethiopian New Year called Enkutatash. It is celebrated on September 11 (September 12 in leap years). Ethiopia uses its own ancient calendar, which was based on the Julian calendar. The new year is the end of the summer rainy season.
The Odunde Festival is also called the "African New Year" is celebrated in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in the United States on the second Sunday of June. While the name was based on the Yoruba African culture, its celebration marks the largest African celebration in the world, which more or less was started by a local tradition.
East Asian
Cambodian New Year (Chaul Chnam Thmey) is celebrated on April 13 or April 14. There are three days for the Khmer New Year: the first day is called "Moha Songkran", the second is called "Virak Wanabat" and the final day is called "Virak Loeurng Sak". During these periods, Cambodians often go to pagoda or play traditional games. Phnom Penh is usually quiet during Khmer New Year as most of the Cambodians prefer spending it at their respective hometowns.

Chinese New Year is celebrated in many countries around the world. It is the first day of the lunar calendar and is corrected for the solar every three years. The holiday normally falls between January 20 and February 20. The holiday is celebrated with food, families, lucky money (usually in a red envelope), and many other red things for good luck. Lion and dragon dances, drums, fireworks, firecrackers, and other types of entertainment fill the streets on this day.
Japanese New Year is celebrated on January 1 because the Gregorian calendar is now used instead of the

Chinese calendar.
Korean New Year, called Seollal, is the first day of the lunar calendar. Koreans also celebrate solar New Year's Day on January 1 each year, following the Gregorian Calendar. People get a day off that day while they have a minimum of three days off on Lunar New Year. People celebrate New Year's Day by preparing food for the ancestors' spirits, visiting ancestors' graves, then playing Korean games such as Yutnol'i {say: yun-no-ree} with families. Young children give respect to their parents, grandparents, relatives, and other elders by bowing down in a traditional way and are given good wishes and some money by the elders. Families enjoy the new years also by counting down until 12:00 am, which would be New Year's Day.

Thai New Year is celebrated on April 13 or April 14 and is called Songkran in the local language. People usually come out to splash water on one another. The throwing of water originated as a blessing. By capturing the water after it had been poured over the Buddhas for cleansing and then using this "blessed" water to give good fortune to elders and family by gently pouring it on the shoulder.

Vietnam New Year (Tết Nguyên Đán or Tết), more commonly known by its shortened name Tết or "Vietnamese Lunar New Year", is the most important and popular holiday and festival in Vietnam, the holiday normally falls between 20 January and 20 February. It is the Vietnamese New Year marking the arrival of spring based on the Chinese calendar, a lunisolar calendar. The name Tết Nguyên Đán is Sino-Vietnamese for Feast of the First Morning, derived from the Hán nôm characters 節 元 旦.

In the Gwaun Valley, Pembrokeshire, Wales the new year is celebrated on January 13, based on the Julian calendar. See New Year celebrations in Gwaun Valley.

Middle Eastern
Hijri New Year in the Islamic culture is also known as Islamic new year (Arabic: رأس السنة الهجرية Ras as-Sanah al-Hijriyah) is the day that marks the beginning of a new Islamic calendar year. New Year moves from year to year because the Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar. The first day of the year is observed on the first day of Muharram, the first month in the Islamic calendar.

Nowruz marks the first day of spring and the beginning of the year in Iranian calendar. It is celebrated on the day of the astronomical vernal equinox, which usually occurs on March 21 or the previous/following day depending on where it is observed. Nowruz has been celebrated for over 3,000 years by the related cultural continent. The holiday is also celebrated and observed by many parts of Central Asia, South Asia, Northwestern China, Crimea and some groups in the Balkans. As well as being a Zoroastrian holiday and having significance amongst the Zoroastrian ancestors of modern Iranians, the same time is celebrated in the Indian sub-continent as the new year. The moment the Sun crosses the celestial equator and equalizes night and day is calculated exactly every year and Iranian families gather together to observe the rituals.

Rosh Hashanah in Israel, is celebrated by Jews both in Israel and throughout the world. The date is not set according to the Gregorian calendar, but it usually falls during August or September. The holiday is celebrated by special dinners and religious services. January 1, the New Year according to the Gregorian calendar, is not celebrated widely in Israel.

South Asian/India
Christians in India celebrate January 1 as the New Year according to the Gregorian calendar. Catholic Christians also celebrate January 1 as The Solemnity of Mary, the Mother of God, the liturgical feast of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

Diwali related New Years celebrations include Marwari New Year and Gujrati New Year.
Indian New Year's days has several variations depending on the region and is based on the Hindu calendar.
Hindu In Hinduism, different regional cultures celebrate new year at different times of the year. In Assam, Bengal, Kerala, Nepal, Orissa, Punjab and Tamil Nadu, households celebrate the new year when the Sun enters Aries on the Hindu calendar. This is normally on April 14 or April 15, depending on the leap year. Elsewhere in northern/central India, the Vikram Samvat calendar is followed. According to that the new year day is the first day of the Chaitra Month, also known as Chaitra Shukla Pratipada or Gudi Padwa. This basically is the first month of the Hindu calendar, the first shukla paksha (fortnight) and the first day. This normally comes around March 23–24, mostly around the Spring Equinox in Gregorian Calendar. The new year is celebrated by paying respect to elders in the family and by seeking their blessings. They also exchange tokens of good wishes for a healthy and prosperous year ahead.

Malayalam New Year (Puthuvarsham) is celebrated either on the first day of the month of Medam in mid-April which is known as Vishu or the first day of the month of Chingam,in the Malayalam Calendar in mid-August according to another reckoning. Unlike most other calendar systems in India, the New Year's Day on the Malayalam Calendar is not based on any astronomical event. It is just the first day of the first of the twelve months on the Malayalam Calendar. The Malayalam Calendar (called Kollavarsham) originated in 825 CE, based on general agreement among scholars, with the re-opening of the city of Kollam (on Malabar Coast), which had been destroyed by a natural disaster.

Nepal Sambat is the Nepalese New Year celebration, which also coincides with the Diwali festival.
The Sikh New Year is celebrated as per the Nanakshahi calendar. The epoch of this calendar is the birth of the first Sikh Guru, Guru Nanak in 1469. New Year's Day falls annually on what is March 14 in the Gregorian Western calendar.

Sinhalese New Year is celebrated in Sri Lankan culture predominantly by the Sri Lankan Sinhalese, while the Tamil New Year on the same day is celebrated by Sri Lankan Tamils. The Sinhalese New Year (aluth avurudda), marks the end of harvest season, by the month of Bak (April) between April 13 and April 14. There is an astrologically generated time gap between the passing year and the New Year, which is based on the passing of the sun from the Meena Rashiya (House of Pisces) to the Mesha Rashiya (House of Aries) in the celestial sphere. The astrological time difference between the New Year and the passing year (nonagathe) is celebrated with several Buddhist rituals and customs that are to be concentrated on, which are exclusive of all types of 'work'. After Buddhist rituals and traditions are attended to, Sinhala and Tamil New Year-based social gatherings and festive parties with the aid of firecrackers, and fireworks would be organized. The exchange of gifts, cleanliness, the lighting of the oil lamp, making kiribath (Milk rice), and even the Asian Koel are significant aspects of the Sinhalese New Year.

Tamil New Year (Puthandu) is celebrated on April 13 or April 14. Traditionally, it is celebrated as Chiththirai Thirunaal in parts of Tamil Nadu to mark the event of the Sun entering Aries. Panchangam (almanac), is read in temples to mark the start of the Year.

Telugu New Year (Ugadi), Kannada New Year (Yugadi) is celebrated in March (generally), April (occasionally). Traditionally, it is celebrated as Chaitram Chaitra Shuddha Padyami in parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka to mark the event of New Year's Day for the people of the Deccan region of India. It falls on a different day every year because the Hindu calendar is a lunisolar calendar. The Saka calendar begins with the month of Chaitra (March–April) and Ugadi/Yugadi marks the first day of the new year. Chaitra is the first month in Panchanga which is the Indian calendar. Panchangam (almanac), is read in temples to mark the start of the Year.

Traditional and modern celebrations and customs
New Year's Eve

Sydney contributes to some of the major New Year celebrations each year.
January 1 represents the fresh start of a new year after a period of remembrance of the passing year, including on radio, television and in newspapers, which starts in early December in countries around the world. Publications have year-end articles that review the changes during the previous year. In some cases publications may set their entire year work alight in hope that the smoke emitted from the flame brings new life to the company. There are also articles on planned or expected changes in the coming year.

This day is traditionally a religious feast, but since the 1900s has also become an occasion to celebrate the night of December 31, called New Year's Eve. There are fireworks at midnight at the moment the new year arrives (the major one is in Sydney; watchnight services are also still observed by many.

Regional celebrations
In European countries, the New Year is greeted with private fireworks.
On New Year's Day, people in certain countries gather on beaches and run into the water to celebrate the new year. In Canada, the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Netherlands this is very popular. These events are sometimes known as polar bear plunges, and are sometimes organized by groups to raise money for charity. Polar Bear Clubs in many Northern Hemisphere cities near bodies of water, have a tradition of holding organized plunges on New Year's Day.

National celebrations

Happy Christmas and New Year card
In the United Kingdom there are many celebrations across the towns and cities, particularly in Scotland.
In London, England, thousands gather along the Embankment on the River Thames to watch the fireworks around the London Eye. The New Year officially starts when Big Ben strikes twelve.
In Scotland, there are many special customs associated with the New Year. These are a part of the Scottish celebration Hogmanay, the Scots name for New Year's Eve. The famous street party in Princes Street in Edinburgh is one example.

In Wales, Calennig is celebrated, with celebrations attracting thousands of people in the capital, Cardiff.
In Greece and Cyprus, families and relatives switch off the lights at midnight, then celebrate by cutting the vassilopita (Basil's pie) which usually contains one coin or equivalent. Whoever wins expects luck for the whole year. After the pie, a traditional game of cards called triantaena  follows.

In Nassau, Bahamas, the Junkanoo parade takes place.
In the Philippines, New Year's is considered part of the Christmas holiday. Noise is made on New Year's Eve with firecrackers and horns (amongst other methods) to dispel evil spirits and to prevent them from bringing bad luck to the coming new year. Tables are laden with food for the Media Noche (midnight meal), and a basket of twelve, different round fruits is displayed to symbolise prosperity in each of the coming twelve months. Public New Year's parties are organised by city governments, and are very well-attended.

In Russia and the other 14 former republics of the Soviet Union, the celebration of Novi God is greeted by fireworks and drinking champagne. Because religion was suppressed in the Soviet Union the New Year holiday took on many attributes associated with Christmas in other countries, including Christmas trees, Ded Moroz (a variant of Santa Claus) and family celebrations with lavish food and gifts. In Moscow, the president of Russia counts down the final seconds of the "old year". The Kremlin's landmark Spassky Clock Tower chimes in the new year and then the anthem starts. It is customary to make a wish while the Clock chimes. The Old New Year is celebrated on January 13 (equivalent to January 1 in the "old style" Julian calendar. Although not an official holiday, it marks the end of the holiday season and is usually when people take down trees and other decorations.

In Davos, Switzerland, the final match of the Spengler Cup ice hockey Tournament is usually held on this day by tradition.
In the United States, it is traditional to spend this occasion together with loved ones. A toast is made to the new year, with kisses, fireworks and parties among the customs. It is popular to make a New Year's resolution, although that is optional. In the country's most famous New Year celebration in New York City, the 11,875-pound (5,386-kg), 12-foot-diameter (3.7-m) Times Square Ball located high above One Times Square is lowered starting at 11:59 pm, with a countdown from sixty seconds until one second, when it reaches the bottom of its tower. The arrival of the new year is announced at the stroke of midnight with fireworks, music and a live celebration that is broadcast worldwide.
In France, some regard the weather as the prediction of that year: wind blowing east, fruit will yield; wind blowing west, fish and livestock will be bumper; wind blowing south, there will be good weather all year round and wind blowing north, there will be crop failure. People would like to toast for the new year.
In Spain, it is customary to have 12 grapes at hand when the clock strikes 12 at midnight. One grape is eaten on each stroke. If all the grapes are eaten within the period of the strikes, it means good luck in the new year.

New Year's Day
The celebrations held world-wide on January 1 as part of New Year's Day commonly include the following:

American football: In the United States, January 1 is the traditional date for many post-season college football bowl games, which are usually accompanied by parades and other activities to celebrate the events
Football: In Europe, Association Football, where a Full Fixture programme[clarification needed] is usually played throughout the Premier League and the rest of the League/Non League system in England
Ice hockey, most famously the Winter Classic in North America, a National Hockey League game that is played outdoors
Entertainment, usually enjoyed from the comfort of home
Family time
Traditional meals
Church services
An annual dip in ice-cold water by hearty individuals, most famously by members of the Polar Bear Club

New Year's babies
A common image used, often as an editorial cartoon, is that of an incarnation of Father Time (or the "Old Year") wearing a sash across his chest with the previous year printed on it passing on his duties to the Baby New Year (or the "New Year"), an infant wearing a sash with the new year printed on it.

Babies born on New Year's Day are commonly called New Year babies. Hospitals, such as the Dyersburg Regional Medical Center in the US, give out prizes to the first baby born in that hospital in the new year. These prizes are often donated by local businesses. Prizes may include various baby-related items such as baby formula, baby blankets, diapers, and gift certificates to stores which specialize in baby-related merchandise.

Wednesday, November 26, 2014

Alternative Strategies and Active Learning # 2

As you consider various modes of instruction, keep in mind that student learning depends primarily on what the students do, both in and out of class, rather than what the teacher does. Your task is to select activities through which students can master course objectives. Lectures, discussions, written exercises, reading assignments, tests, group work, individualized instruction, field trips, observations, experiments, and many other kinds of experiences may be necessary for students to learn the things you want them to learn. Your choice of strategies is affected by a number of considerations: the level of the objectives, the abilities of the students, your teaching skills and preferences, the size of the class. However, since college is supposed to help students sharpen their higher-order thinking skills, strategies that promote active involvement in learning should be the goal of every teacher.

Like case studies, simulations provide students with practice in decision making, but in a different, more engaging, format. Since simulations are based on real-life situations, they present students with choices and constraints that reflect real-world problems. For example, a class in political science might simulate a city council meeting to decide on the location of a halfway house for juvenile offenders. Students are given particular roles to play: members of the police department, representatives of neighborhood associations, social workers trying to reintegrate juvenile offenders into society, and others with conflicting concerns. The task facing the class is to come to agreement about the placement of the halfway house. The instructional objectives are to practice negotiation skills, engage in proble solving, and discover techniques for reaching compromise.

Simulations are more difficult and time-consuming to write than case studies, and they usually take more time in class, although the teacher’s role is less directive than in the case study method. They also require more explanation before the exercise and, when completed, a careful exposition of what has been learned by relating students’ experiences to the general principles involved. Nonetheless, simulations can be very effective in teaching problem solving and in developing students’ self-confidence.

Games and simulations are closely related, and there are mixed varieties: simulation games, nonsimulation games, and non-game simulations. Games are activities in which there are winners and
losers, definite sets of rules for “moves,” and frequent use of props or other paraphernalia. For example, in a game used in sociology classes, players are randomly assigned to several different groups and provided with colored markers that represent money. They are told to maximize their cash through negotiations and trade with other groups, but the rules for trading markers are actually stacked against certain groups — they literally cannot win. This game allows students to experience in a small way life in a rigid class society in which improvement of one’s condition is made difficult or impossible by the society’s economic rules.Although it is possible to devise games yourself, hundreds of instructional games and simulations have been published by organizations involved in education and training.

Written Assignments and Out-of-Class Exercises
Written assignments can be more original and exciting than the usual term papers, book reports, and homework assignments. Students are capable of producing fairly sophisticated work if the assignment is clearly explained and carefully structured. For example, you might require students to observe and report on a city council meeting, fundamentalist revival, ballet, construction site, archeological excavation, bus station, or protest march. Of course, you would need to teach them how to take observational notes and suggest an organizational framework for the final report.

To help students sharpen writing skills, you may decide to assign shorter papers and allow rewrites until their work is acceptable. In general, many short writing assignments are preferable to a single long paper, depending upon the goals of the course and the level of student skills. Regardless of the length of the assignment, clearly written instructions are indispensable (giving such assignments orally is usually not effective). For more on using writing in your teaching, see pages 76-79.

Class time can be used for focused activities in which students can practice essential skills. For example, in math-related subjects, after fifteen to twenty minutes of instruction on a particular kind of problem, you could require students to work examples alone for fifteen minutes. This technique forces them to try to apply the concepts that have just been taught, and usually produces questions they didn’t think to ask during the lecture (and also provides a powerful antidote to boredom). Since students typically defer their homework problems until the night before the next class, they often lose the thread of the explanation by that time - immediate practice in class helps reinforce the explanation. Also in math-related courses, requiring students to work homework problems on the chalkboard provides an opportunity to correct their errors and misconceptions and to ask questions about other homework problems while they are at the board.

In the social sciences and humanities, requiring short in-class writing exercises is analogous to working math problems in class. These exercises can take many different forms - for example: a paragraph defending or attacking a particular point of view, a one-page analysis of a reading assignment, or a short essay summarizing the student’s impression of a class discussion. The variety of these short writing  assignments is endless, and they need not take huge amounts of class time — many can be accomplished in ten minutes or less.

*Adapted from Teaching at Carolina (1998). Chapel Hill: Center for Teaching and Learning, University of North Carolin

Alternative Strategies and Active Learning # 1

As you consider various modes of instruction, keep in mind that student learning depends primarily on what the students do, both in and out of class, rather than what the teacher does. Your task is to select activities through which students can master course objectives. Lectures, discussions, written exercises, reading assignments, tests, group work, individualized instruction, field trips, observations, experiments, and many other kinds of experiences may be necessary for students to learn the things you want them to learn. Your choice of strategies is affected by a number of considerations: the level of the objectives, the abilities of the students, your teaching skills and preferences, the size of the class. However, since college is supposed to help students sharpen their higher-order thinking skills, strategies that promote active involvement in learning should be the goal of every teacher.

Peer teaching
Research has shown that students who are required to teach something learn concepts better than if they are taught the material in conventional ways. In other words, teaching is a more effective learning strategy than being taught, and it makes sense to use this principle in the classroom to increase learning. Pairing students atlearning tasks is more effective than having students work alone (a good reason for having lab partners in the natural sciences).Peer teaching can easily be incorporated in most classes. For example, you could make an assignment in which students must prepare their own questions on the main points of a reading selection; in class, have students work in pairs or small groups, alternately asking and answering questions they have prepared.

During the session, you can move from group to group, giving feedback and asking and answering questions yourself. Students are more willing to share their views in small groups and often develop deeper insights about the material than they would working alone. In math-related courses, students could be required to make up original problems to solve (after completing a regular homework assignment). Instead of the dreary oral report so often used in social science classes, why not require students to prepare a lesson on the topic? Their grades could depend, in part, on how well the class answers test questions on that topic. Exercise caution in using this strategy, however, for undergraduates not only need instructions about how to teach a lesson, they also should know the criteria you will use for evaluating their performance.

Cooperative Learning Groups
Many teachers will occasionally break their classes into small groups for discussions, but only a few use the technique as a fundamental teaching tool. A class can be divided into learning teams that are periodically given instructional tasks to complete, either in or out of class. Research has shown that, with careful planning, this technique increases the efficiency and effectiveness of learning. 

Groups of six or seven work best because this size is small enough for everyone to participate in problem solving or debate, yet large enough for a spectrum of views to be represented. To work successfully, groups require a wide variety of viewpoints and intellectual skills, so it is important to make them as heterogeneous as possible. The individual data cards you collect on the first day of class can yield important information about your students’ backgrounds and preparation and make it easier to create heterogeneous groups. 

A professor of political science who uses long-term groups in his class tries to insure that each team has someone with a math background and at least one political science major. He creates groups with maximum diversity with respect to major, gender, race, and other characteristics. The tasks you assign for group work should challenge students to analyze phenomena, solve problems, apply theories, exercise judgment, or perform some combination of these activities. Clearly written instructions are vital to the success of this kind of exercise, which means the teacher must analyze the task carefully and break it down into its component parts. 

During the exercise, the teacher moves from group to group, answering questions, clarifying instructions, giving advice, and observing the group process. Group exercises can be designed for 15- to 20-minute periods, and need not consume an entire class period.In a well-designed group activity, there should be little need for direct intervention by the teacher. It is true that many teachers are uncomfortable with the loss of direct control that accompanies small-group work, but you still govern the process and outcome by the instructions you provide for the groups. Small groups can be used with a variety of other techniques, such as peer teaching, case studies, and simulations; imaginative teachers are discovering new ways to use the technique every day.

Case Studies
Case studies are appropriate for learning about information analysis, decision making, or problem solving. The method, made famous by the Harvard Business School, requires the development of a set of cases that reflect problems or issues in the course material. For example, in an anthropology course, a case might describe the artifacts discovered in a real or hypothetical excavation. The students, as a group, would be expected to infer information about the life and culture of the people who lived at the site, based on knowledge and techniques they had learned in other parts of the course.

Depending upon the nature of the material and the sophistication of the students, cases can be quite lengthy and complex. You can divide the class into small groups to work on the case and circulate among them to facilitate the process. Over the semester, cases can be made more complex and challenging as students become more knowledgeable.

The development of case studies for an entire course requires research into the method to master its subtleties. Cases must provide enough information to elicit analytical thought, but not so much that the solutions are obvious. This process can be very time-consuming, but once the cases are written, they may need only a few revisions to run successfully semester after semester. Remember that students need to master a common knowledge base before they will be ready to tackle a case study, and they need to understand clearly the steps in the analytical process they will use. Finally, managing the discussion of case studies requires techniques that differ from generalized discussion methods, and it would be helpful to observe a teacher experienced in the method before trying it yourself.

*Adapted from Teaching at Carolina (1998). Chapel Hill: Center for Teaching and Learning, University of North Carolin

Alternative Education

Alternative education, also known as non-traditional education or educational alternative, includes a number of approaches to teaching and learning separate from that offered by mainstream or traditional education. Educational alternatives are rooted in a number of philosophies differing from those of mainstream education. Although some alternatives have political, scholarly or philosophical orientations, others were begun by informal associations of teachers and students dissatisfied with some aspects of mainstream education. Educational alternatives (which include charter, alternative and independent schools and home-based learning) vary, but usually emphasize small class sizes, close relationships between students and teachers and a sense of community.

Alternative education refers to education which does not conform to a conventional standard. In the United States the public-school system may set this standard, although public schools adopt an alternative approach as well. Synonyms for "alternative" in this context include "non-traditional," "non-conventional" and "non-standardized". Alternative educators use terms such as "authentic", "holistic" and "progressive". The U.S. Department of Education describes an alternative school as “a public elementary/secondary school that: 1) addresses needs of students that typically cannot be met in a regular school; 2) pro- vides nontraditional education; 3) serves as an adjunct to a regular school; or 4) falls outside the categories of regular, special education, or vocational education”

Alternative education presupposes a tradition to which the "alternative" is opposed. This limits the term to the last two or three centuries and the growth of standardized, compulsory primary and secondary education. Nineteenth-century educators, including Swiss humanitarian Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi; the American transcendentalists Amos Bronson Alcott, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Henry David Thoreau; founders of progressive education John Dewey and Francis Parker, and educational pioneers such as Friedrich Fröbel, Maria Montessori and Rudolf Steiner (founder of the Waldorf schools) believed that education should cultivate the moral, emotional, physical, psychological, and spiritual aspects of the developing child. Anarchists such as Leo Tolstoy and Francisco Ferrer Guardia emphasized education as a force for political liberation, secularism and the elimination of class distinctions. After World War II an alternative Reggio Emilia approach to early-childhood education was developed in Italy, introduced by Loris Malaguzzi.

Cultural critics such as John Caldwell Holt, Paul Goodman, Frederick Mayer and George Dennison have examined education from individualist, anarchist, and libertarian perspectives. Other writers, from Paulo Freire to American educators Herbert Kohl and Jonathan Kozol, have criticized mainstream Western education from the viewpoint of liberal and radical politics. The argument for an approach catering to the interests and learning style of an individual is supported by research suggesting that a learner-responsible model is more effective than a teacher-responsible one. Ron Miller has identified five elements common to educational alternatives:
  1. Respect for the person
  2. Balance
  3. Decentralization of authority
  4. Noninterference among the political, economic, and cultural spheres of society
  5. A holistic worldview

Alternative school
"Alternative school" describes a number of educational approaches employing nontraditional philosophies, curricula and methods. Some alternative schools have a strong philosophical, political or practical orientations; others are ad hoc assemblies of teachers and students seeking to explore possibilities unavailable in traditional education.

Independent schools
Independent, or private, schools have flexibility in staff selection and educational approach. Many are Montessori and Waldorf schools (the latter also known as Steiner schools, after their founder Rudolf Steiner). Other independent schools include democratic or free schools, such as the Sudbury schools, open classroom schools, those based on experiential education and schools using an international curriculum such as the International Baccalaureate and Round Square schools.

Families seeking alternatives for educational, philosophical or religious reasons, or if there is no nearby educational alternative may opt for home-based education. A minor branch is unschooling, an approach based on interest rather than a curriculum. Others enroll in umbrella schools which provide a curriculum. Some homeschool families form a cooperative, where parents with expertise in a subject may teach a children from a number of families while their children are taught by other parents.

Main article: Autodidacticism
Self-directed inquiry is recognized at all levels of education, from the "unschooling" of children to the autodidacticism of adults, and may occur separately from (or with) traditional forms of education.

Tuesday, October 7, 2014

What Citizens of The Republic Of Indonesia

Citizens are defined as those who are part of a population into state elements. The term citizen more in line with its position as a free man than the term slave or servant of the State. because it implies citizen participants, members, or citizens of a country, which participants of a partnership established with the joint force. To that end, every citizen has equal rights before the law. All citizens have the rights, privacy, and responsibility. 

Understanding citizen, According to: 
• A.S. Hikam: Defines that the citizen is a translation of "citizenship" is a member of a community that shapes the country itself. The term is thought to be better than the state subjects more meaningful term object means that the people who owned and devoted to their owners. 
• Koerniatmanto S: Defining the member states citizens. As a member state, a citizen has the special position of the country. He has a relationship of rights and obligations which are reciprocal - turning against his country. 
• Law No. 62 in 1958: states that Indonesia is a republic country people - people who by law - laws and or agreements - agreements and or regulations - regulations since the proclamation of 17 August 1945 have become citizens of the republic of Indonesia. 
So of the three citizens above opinion can be summed up as a community to form itself states that under the domestic laws - laws or treaties - treaties and have the rights and obligations of the relationship reciprocal. 

Criteria for Becoming Citizens: 
To determine who the citizens, used two criteria: 
Criterion birth. Based on this criterion is divided into two, namely: 
- Criterion of birth according to the principle of fatherhood mother also called Ius Sanguine. In this principle acquire a citizenship of a State based on the nationality of his parents hope, wherever he was born 
- Criterion of birth according to the principle of ius soli or place of birth. In principle this person obtains citizenship by Country place where he was born, even though the parents are not nationals of that State. 
- Naturalized or naturalization, is a legal process that causes a person to certain terms have the citizenship of other countries. 
  1. Any person who by legislation and / or the Government of the Republic of Indonesia based on agreements with other countries before this Act applies is already a citizen of Indonesia 
  2. Children born of the legitimate marriage of a father and mother Indonesian citizen 
  3. Children born of the legitimate marriage of an Indonesian citizen father and mother of foreign nationals 
  4. Children born of the legitimate marriage of a foreign national father and mother Indonesian citizen 
  5. Children born of the legitimate marriage of an Indonesian citizen mother, but his father did not have legal citizenship or country of origin of his father did not give citizenship to the child 
  6. Children born within a period of 300 (three hundred) days after his father died of a legal marriage and his Indonesian citizen 
  7. Children born outside of legal marriage from an Indonesian citizen mother 
  8. Children born outside of legal marriage of a foreign citizen mother recognized by an Indonesian citizen father as a child and recognition is done before the children were aged 18 (eighteen) years or unmarried 
  9. Children born in the territory of the Republic of Indonesia which is not obvious at birth father and his mother's citizenship status 
  10. Newborn child found in the territory of the Republic of Indonesia for the father and mother are unknown 
  11. Children born in the territory of the Republic of Indonesia if the father and mother do not have citizenship or not known to exist 
  12. Children born outside the territory of the Republic of Indonesia from a father and mother Indonesian citizen because of the provisions of the country where the child was born giving citizenship to the child's 
  13. Son of a father or mother who has been granted citizenship application, then the father or the mother dies before the oath or pledge of allegiance states. 

Citizenship is membership of a person in control of a particular political unit (in particular: state) which carries with it the right to participate in political activities. A person with such a membership called citizens. A citizen has the right to have a passport from a country that dianggotainya. 

Citizenship is part of the concept of citizenship (English: citizenship). Within this sense, the citizens of a city or county referred to as citizens or citizens of the district, because they are also a political unit. In regional autonomy, citizenship is becoming important, because each political unit will entitle the holder (usually social) different for its citizens.

Citizenship has similarities with nationality (English) The difference is that the rights to be active in politics. It is possible to have a nationality without being a citizen (ie, the law is the subject of a country and is entitled to protection without having the right to participate in politics). It is also possible to have political rights without being a national of a member state. 

Under the social contract theory, citizenship status has implications for the rights and obligations. In the philosophy of "active citizenship", a citizen is required to contribute to the improvement of the community through its ability of economic participation, public service, volunteer work, and other similar activities to improve the livelihoods of its people. Of the rationale appears Citizenship subjects (English: Civics) given in schools.

Expert view on Understanding Citizenship Education 

Civic education is actually done and developed throughout the world, although with different terms or names. The subject is often referred to as civic education, Citizenship Education, and some even call it a democrcy education. But in general, the expert opinion has the same intent and purpose. 

Some views of the experts on citizenship education is as follows [1] [2]: 
  1. Henry Randall Waite in magazine publishing Citizendan Civics, in 1886, formulated by the sciens Civics understanding of citizenship, the relations of man, the individual, to the man in organized collections, the individual in his relations to the state. From these definitions, formulated Civics Civic Studies discussing the human relationship with the man in the organized gatherings (social organization, economy, politics) and between individuals and the state. 
  2. Stanley E. Dimond found civics is citizenship has two meanings in school activities. The first, including citizenship status related to a legitimate law. Secondly, political activities and election by a majority vote, government organizations, government agencies, law, and responsibility 
  3. Edmonson (1958) suggested that the study of civics is related to the government and that the rights and obligations of citizens. 
  4. According Merphin Panjaitan, Citizenship Education is democratic education which aims to educate young people to become citizens through a democratic and participatory education dialogial. While Soedijarto Citizenship Education defines as political education which aims to help learners to be citizens who are politically mature and participating in the development of a democratic political system 
  5. According to Muhammad Numan Soemantri, characterized by the following characteristics: a. Civic Education is a program of activities that include the whole school; b. Civic Education covers a wide range of teaching activities that can live and grow better behavior in democratic societies; c. in Civic Education also includes matters relating to experience, public, private and objectively to the terms of statehood 
  6. According to Azyumardi Azra, civic education, civics education developed into a substantive citizenship education not only educate young people to become citizens who are intelligent and aware of their rights and obligations in the context of social life and state, but also the readiness of citizens to build global citizenship , global society. 
  7. Soedijarto Citizenship Education defines as political education which aims to help learners to be citizens who are politically mature and participating in the development of a democratic political system. 

From these definitions, further reinforce the sense of civic education (Civics) because the material includes the positive effect of education in the school, home education, and education outside of school. These elements should be considered in preparing the Civic Education program is expected to help the learners (students) to:
  • Know, understand and appreciate our national goals. 
  • Can make smart decisions and are responsible for a wide range of issues, such as personal, community and country. 

Thus, citizenship education (civic education) is the education program that includes a discussion of the problems of nationality, citizenship in relation Essence civic education is a conscious and deliberate effort to educating the nation for citizens to foster identity and moral foundation of the nation as the implementation of rights and obligations in defending the country, for the sake of continuity of life and the glory of the nation and the state. Citizenship education is a subject that aims to make students as good citizens or often called to be good citizenship, ie, people who have good intellect intellectual, emotional, 

Social and spiritual, have a sense of pride and responsibility, and are able to participate in social life and state that a growing sense of nationalism and patriotism. 

In terms Civics Education by most experts translated into Indonesian into Civics and Citizenship Education. The term is represented by the Citizenship Education Azyumardi Azra and Tim ICCE (Indonesian Center for Civic Education) UIN Jakarta as Civics Education Development in Higher Education first. While the term is represented by the Citizenship Education Zemroni, Muhammad Numan Soemantri, Udin S. Winataputra and Tim CICED (Indonesian Center for Civics Education), Merphin Panjaitan, Soedijarto and other experts. [2] [3] 

Citizenship education is getting momentum in the 1990s with a different understanding. For some experts, Citizenship Education identified with the Democracy Education (democracy Education), Education on Human Rights (human rights education) and Citizenship Education (citizenship education). According to Azra, Democratic Education (Education democracy) involves substantive socialization, dissemination and actualization of concepts, systems, values​​, culture and practice of democracy through education. Still according to Azra, Citizenship Education is education a broader scope of education for democracy and human rights education. Because, Citizenship Education includes a review and discussion of the government, constitution, democratic institutions, rule of law, the rights and obligations of citizens, the democratic process, active participation and involvement of citizens in civil society, institutions and knowledge of the system contained in government, political heritage, public administration and the legal system, knowledge of processes such as active citizenship, critical reflection, inquiry and cooperation, social justice, intercultural understanding and conservation of the environment and human rights. 

While Zamroni argues that Citizenship Education is democratic education that aims to prepare citizens to think critically and act democratically, through activity awareness to instill a new generation that democracy is the best form of public life that guarantees the rights of citizens. 

Citizenship of the Republic of Indonesia 

An Indonesian Citizen (WNI) is one that is recognized by law as a citizen of the Republic of Indonesia. This person will be given identity cards by district or (especially Jakarta) Province, where he was listed as a resident / citizen. This person will be given a unique identity number (Identity Number, NIK) when he was 17 years old and registered at government offices. Passport granted by the state to its citizens as proof of identity is concerned in the international legal order. 

Indonesian citizenship is also obtained for a person who is included in the following situations: 

Children who are under 18 years of age or unmarried, and are residing in the territory of the Republic of Indonesia, the father or mother to obtain Indonesian citizenship 
Children of foreign citizens who have a five year old child who is legally appointed by court order as a child by an Indonesian citizen 
In addition to the acquisition of citizenship status as mentioned above, it is also possible the acquisition of citizenship of the Republic of Indonesia through the naturalization process. Foreign nationals who are legally married to an Indonesian citizen and have lived in the territory of the Republic of Indonesia at least five consecutive years or ten years in a row can not be made ​​the remarks become citizens before the competent authority, provided it does not lead to dual citizenship. 

Different from previous Citizenship Act, Citizenship Act of 2006 allows two citizens limited basis, ie for children aged up to 18 years old and not married to that age. Further guidance on this is included in the Government Regulation no. 2 in 2007. 

Of the Act is seen that the principle of the Republic of Indonesia adheres to the principle of ius sanguinis citizenship; coupled with limited ius soli (see points 8-10) and dual citizenship is limited (11 points). 

Rights and Duties of Citizens
The right is the right thing, belongs, belonging, authority, power to do sesuatu.Setiap citizens have the same rights to each other without exception. Similarities between humans always upheld to avoid any jealousy that may lead to various problems in later hari.Namun usually for those who have lots of money or tajir may have additional rights and obligations as citizens of the reduction of the unitary state of Indonesia. 

According to Prof. Dr. Notonagoro: 

The right is the power to accept or perform a proper received or made ​​solely by certain parties and not by any other party which in principle can be prosecuted by force by her .. 

Here's an example of rights as citizens: 
  1. Every citizen is entitled to legal protection. The point is that every citizen of the same rank in the eyes of the law, even though the poor and neglected children are also protected by the state 
  2. Every citizen has the right to work and decent living , Every citizen is entitled to the work as stated in Article 23 paragraph (1) determine the "every person has the right to work are entitled to free choice of employment, is entitled to the terms of fair labor and good and to protection against unemployment. 
  3. Every citizen has an equal footing in the eyes of the law and in government. Contained in Article 27 (1) states the equality of citizens before the law and rule without exception. This article shows our concern for human rights as well the balance between the rights and obligations of passage and no discrimination among citizens. 
  4. Every citizen is free to choose, embrace and practice the religion and beliefs of each believed. Article 29 (1), (2) of the 1945 Constitution set of religious freedom in Indonesia. The right to religious freedom is not giving the State or class but by faith so that can not be enforced. 
  5. Every citizen has the right to education and teaching. Contained in article 31 (1), (2) of the 1945 Constitution, the State is in accordance with the purpose of opening kta in 1945 that Indonesia among others obliged the intellectual life of the nation. 
  6. Every citizen is entitled to maintain the unity of the Indonesian territory or Homeland from enemy attack Article 30 (1) UUD 1945 keewajiban states and the right of every citizen to participate in the defense of the state enterprises and (2) further states that the arrangements made ​​by the law. The law is meant is Law No. 20 1982. 
  7. Every citizen has the same rights in freedom of association, assembly issued an opinion orally and in writing in accordance applicable laws. 

Article 28 UUD 1945 establishes the rights of citizens and residents gathered for the association of passage, removing thoughts orally and in writing, and so on. Its terms will be governed by law. 

Obligations as a citizen of Indonesia
citizen obligation expressed in article 30 of the 1945 Constitution has been included in the liability Understanding the 1945 Constitution article 26, 27, 28, and 30, as follows. 
  1. Article 26, paragraph (1), who become citizens are the native people of Indonesia and the people of other nations who passed the law as citizens. And in paragraph (2), the terms of citizenship  reserved. 
  2. of Article 27, paragraph (1), along with all citizens equal before the law and administration, must uphold the law and government, with no exceptions. In paragraph (2), but and every citizen has the right to work and decent living for humanity. 
  3. Article 28, freedom of association and assembly, issued both verbally, and so on are set by law. 
  4. of Article 30, paragraph (1), the rights and obligations of citizens to participate in the defense of the country. And (2) states further regulation is set by law. 

Every citizen has the same rights and obligations to each other without exception. Rights and obligations of this is something that can not be separated, but often there is a conflict because the rights and obligations of balance. It's very clear that every citizen has the right and obligation to earn a decent living, but in reality many citizens who do not live their lives in a welfare sense. To achieve a balance between rights and obligations, that is by knowing the position of ourselves. As a citizen should know their rights and obligations. As already stated in the laws and rules that apply. If the rights and obligations of a balanced and fulfilled, then the society will be safe prosperous. However, until now there are many people who do not get their rights so that people can not meet their obligations as citizens. 

Examples obligation Indonesian citizen
  1. 1 Every citizen has a duty to participate in the defense, defending the sovereignty of Indonesia country from enemy attack 
  2. Every citizen must pay taxes and fees set by the central government and local governments (LGs) 
  3. Every citizen is obliged to obey and uphold the basic state, law and government without exception, and run with the best 
  4. Every citizen is obliged to obey, submit and adhere to all applicable laws in the territory of Indonesia 
  5. Every citizen is obliged to participate in the development of the nation in order to build our nation can develop and progress toward a better 

Every citizen has the same rights and obligations but did not materialize well because there is still debate which should take precedence if prior obligations or rights to be realized first. 

Often we hear the words of the term resident "Native and Non-Native", which can divide the unity of the nation. Under article 26 UUD 1945, is it appropriate issue raised, who is meant citizens and residents? How do you as a student respond? 

Is one thing that is quite sad that in the days of air-civilized man and 
in the country based on Pancasila, still not a few people who believe 
racist. And if such racist views is allowed control of the archipelago, the nation will be destroyed the unity of Indonesia.

The Collapse of the Theory of the State

The Collapse of the Theory of the State
  1. Organic Theory: State likened to an organism that covered the development of the law of life. 
  2. Anarchic Theory: the State is a form of governance that is only suitable for forced primitive society. At the time the State would disappear, a society without coercion and without the State. 

The way to eliminate it:
a) With violence (revolution): Proudhon, Kropatkin, Bakunin.
b) With the education and evolution: Leo Tolstoy.

  1. Marxist Theory : The state will eventually disappear by itself, if the conditions for life no longer exists. 
  2. Other Theories Regarding the disappearance of the State
a) Due to natural factors: The country that was already established as a natural factor and vanished / disappeared. 

For example: 

1 volcano erupts. 
2. Island swallowed sea water. 

b) Due to social factors: The state already recognized standing and other countries, but because of social factors and vanished. 
c) Since the conquest. 
d) A revolution. 

e) The existence of agreements. 

f) The incorporation.

The Origin of The Formation of the State

Country of Origin Occurrence Facts And Theoretical 

Origin of the state is divided into 2 In the Primary or the origin of the state based on the theoretical approach and In Secondary or origin of the state based on the facts. 

In Primary 
The occurrence of the state is the primary stages, starting from the simplest legal community, and then evolved to the level of the more advanced and not associated with the pre-existing state. Thus the state is the primary basis to discuss the origin of the first countries in the world. 
According to G. Jellinek, the state primarily through four phases (Phase), namely: 
• Phase Guild humans. 
• Phase kingdom. 
• Phase State. 
• Phase democratic State and Dictatorship

Stages of the State: 
Genoot Schaft (Tribe) 
There is a term that means the Primus interpares primary among others. 

Rijk / Reich (Empire) 
Here comes the awareness of property rights and land rights. 

Awareness of the need for democracy and popular sovereignty. 

The dictatorship Natie 
Government led by a choice of the people who then ruled unanimously 

In Secondary 
The occurrence of the secondary states are discussing the new state associated with other countries that have been there before, in this regard, the recognition of other countries in the secondary theory is an important element of the establishment of a new country. 
To determine the occurrence of new states can use factual approach is an approach that is based on reality and experience the history that actually happened. 
According to historical fact, the occurrence of a state because:

a. Invasion / occupation (Occupasi). 
An area no later occupied by the master of a nation. Examples: Liberia occupied negro slaves who were freed in 1847. 

b. Relief (Proclamation). 
An area of particular countries, including district and state independence escape. Example: Belgian escape from the Dutch in 1839, Indonesia in 1945, Pakistan in 1947 (the provinces of Hindustan), Bangladesh in 1971 (the territory of Pakistan), 1975 Papua New Guinea (the territory of Australia), three Baltic countries (Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania ) escapes from the Soviet Union in 1991, etc.

c. Melting into one (fusion). 
Some countries have melting into one new country. Example: The Government of Germany (1871), Vietnam (1975), Germany (1990), etc.

d. Annexation / Possession (Anexatie) 
A nation stands at a region dominated (annexed) by other people without meaningful reaction. Example: the state of Israel was formed in 1948 when many districts annex Palestine, Syria, Jordan and Egypt. 

e. Unlearning and the formation of new states. 
A country is broken and disappeared, then appeared on the territory of the new country. 
Example: Germany into West Germany and East Germany in 1945. 

f. Fusion - Melting two or more countries and form one country. 

g. Acessie - Withdrawal. Increasing a region because the sea sedimentation a long period of time and is occupied by the group. 

h.Cessie - Submission. A district handed over to other countries based on the agreement. 

i. Innovation - A National burst, then disappear and bring new countries on it. 

j. Separation - a region that is part of the country, then broke away from its parent country and declared independence. Example: Belgium in 1839 to escape from the Netherlands 

In addition to studying the origin of the first occurrence of the country can also use a theoretical approach that is based on an approach that hipotesanya logical frame of mind has not been proven in a statement. On the basis of these approaches, there are several theories about the origin of the occurrence of the country:

a. Theory Godhead (theokratis). 
The rationale for this theory is the belief that everything that exists or happens in this universe is all the will of God, as well as state occurs due to the will of God. The remains of theory theokratis symbol appears in the sentence contained in the Constitution of various countries, such as: "... .. Over the grace of Almighty God" or "By the grace of God". 

This theory was pioneered by Augustine, Friedrich Julius Stahl, and Kraneburg. 

b. Theory of Power. 
According to this theory the state is formed because of the power, while power comes from those who are the most robust and powerful, so that the state is due to the people who have the power / authority to conquer the weak. 

c. Theory Society Agreement. 
According to this theory, the state is formed because a group of people who originally lived each individually entered into an agreement to form an organization that could hold a common interest. This theory is based on an understanding of human life is separated into two pre-state era (era naturally) and the state. 

This theory was pioneered by Thomas Hobbes. 

d. Natural Law Theory. 
According to this theory, the formation of the state and the law by looking at human society before their own lives. Thoughts on the plato and Aristotle 

e. Human face Agreement theory of natural conditions and violence arises. Mankind would be doomed if he does not change his ways. Humans also unite to overcome the challenges and using union in a single motion for the common good. 

Monday, September 29, 2014


In essence, learning is a conscious effort of teachers or students or teachers to help their students so that they can learn according to their needs and interests. Learning is an activity that aims. This goal must be in line with the objectives of student learning and curriculum. The purpose of learning the student is achieving the optimal development, which includes cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. While the purpose of the curriculum is the fulfillment of all targetan goals in a written document to achieve the learning objectives based on defined levels. 

Learning activities carried out by the teacher. Therefore, teachers must demonstrate and develop dynamic elements when membelajarkan to students. Many of us have encountered, students are not interested in learning the material because the subject matter is boring. To avoid these symptoms, the teacher must select and organize the subject matter in such a way, that stimulate and challenge students to learn. 

In this case, the teacher is required to utilize the results of the technology, this connection is able to understand the medium (intermediate) so that the achievement of learning goals in the learning process. 
Further in this paper will explain the classification and also the characteristics of instructional media.

A. Definition of instructional media. 
B. Classification of instructional media. 
C. Characteristics of instructional media. 
D. The election procedure appropriate learning media.

A. Definition of Learning Media 
The word comes from the Latin media medius, which literally means the middle, intermediate or introduction. In Arabic, the media is an intermediate (وسائل) or introductory message from the sender to the receiver of the message. Association for Education and Communication Technology (AECT) defines all forms of media that is used for the information distribution process. Gerlach and Ely (1971) says that if the media is understood broadly human, material, or events that establish the conditions that enable the child to acquire the knowledge, skills, or attitudes. In this sense, teachers, textbooks, and school environment is the media. More specifically, the notion of media in teaching and learning tends to be interpreted as graphical tools, photographic, or electronically to capture, process, and reconstruct visual or verbal information. [1] 

It can be concluded that the definition of media is something that is delivering the message and can stimulate thoughts, feelings, and willingness audience (students) so as to encourage the learning process in itself. Creative use of media will allow the audience (students) to learn better and can improve the performance of them in accordance with the objectives to be achieved. [2] 

B. Classification of Instructional Media 
Along the way, the development of instructional media with the current technological developments. The oldest technology that is utilized printing system that works on the basis of the mechanistic principles. Then the audio-visual technology combine mechanistic and electronic discovery for the purpose of learning. Last emerging technology is a micro processor that spawned the use of computers and interactive activities. Based on these developments, the learning media can be classified into 4 groups, namely: the result of printing technology media, audio-visual media technology results, media results are based on computer technology, print media merge results and computer technology. [3] 

According to Rudi Bretz classify the main characteristics of media on the following principal elements: sound, visual, and motion. To visually distinguished itself again in three forms, namely: visual images, line (graphic liner), and symbols. He also distinguishes broadcast media and recording media, so there are eight classifications of media; 
  1. Audio-visual motion media
  2. Audio-visual media silent 
  3. Audio spring motion media
  4. Visual motion media
  5. Visual media silent 
  6. Visual media spring motion 
  7. Audio media
  8. Print 

Meanwhile, according to Oemar H. Malik, there are four classifications of teaching media, namely: 
  1. Visual tools that can be seen, 
  2. The tools that are auditory or that can only be heard, 
  3. Tools that can be seen and heard, 
  4. Dramatization. 

But according to Gagne, there are seven kinds of media classification, namely: object to demonstrated, oral communication, print images, still images, motion pictures, silent films, machine learning. Seven kinds of media classification is then linked with its ability to meet the function according to the development level of the hierarchy learning stimulus learning thrower, towing interest in learning, learning behavior instances, given the external conditions, demanding way of thinking, rather incorporate knowledge, assess the achievements and give feedback behind. 

Based on some of the above classification can be concluded in general there are five, namely learning media: print-based media, visual-based media, audio-visual media-based, computer-based media, human-based media.

C. Characteristics of Learning Media 
Classification as described in the preceding description describes the characteristics or specific traits of each medium differ from one another in accordance with the object and purpose of the grouping. We can determine the characteristics of the media according to their economic review, the scope of covered targets, ease of control by the wearer and so on. Also can be seen from the ability of stimulation evokes the senses of sight, hearing, touch, conversation, or smell, or compliance with the hierarchy level of learning. As stated by Kemp (1975) is the basis for selecting the media in accordance with a particular learning situation. As was said by Arief S. Sadiman (1986) that the classification of the media, media characteristics, and media selection are inseparable in the determination of learning strategies. [4] Here is a further explanation of the characteristics of instructional media. 

1.Human-Based Media 
Among some human-based media media is the oldest media to transmit and communicate a message or information. This media is helpful, especially if our goal is to change attitudes or want to be directly involved with monitoring student learning. Media man can direct and influence the process of learning through guided exploration by analyzing from time to time what is happening in the learning environment. Often in an atmosphere of learning, the students have had a bad learning experience and see learning as something negative. Human instructor "as a media" can intuitively feel the needs of their students and gave pengalamn learn that will help achieve the learning objectives. 
Human-based media filed two effective techniques, the design is centered on the problem and asking Socratic. The design-centered learning problems constructed based on the problem to be solved by the student. With the following steps: 
  1. Formulate relevant issues. 
  2. Identify the knowledge and skills related to problem solving. 
  3. Teach why knowledge is important and how that knowledge can be applied to solving the problem. 
  4. Guided exploration of students. 
  5. Develop problem in the context of the diverse stages of difficulty levels. 
  6. The value of the student's knowledge by giving a new problem to be solved.

While the Socratic asked: 
  1. Identify questions that ask students to share, analyze, evaluate, and synthesize their work or task. 
  2. The lesson might begin with a large group discussion as a discussion of exploration. Students can then be grouped in small groups to explore issues and ideas that appear in a large group discussion. 
  3. Determining whether students have to learn or to work together in groups, individually, one by one, or freely. 

One of the important factors in learning with human-based media is an interactive lesson plans.
1. Based Print Media 
Media-based mold is most commonly known textbooks, handbooks, journals, magazines, and a sheet of paper. In the print-based media are six things to consider when designing, namely: consistency, format, organization, attractiveness, font size, and the use of empty space. [5] 
Text-based interactive learning became popular in the 1960s with the terms of programmed learning materials for independent study. With this format, for each small unit of information is presented and student response prompted either by answering questions or participating in training activities. [6] 
Materials-based print media is the basis of development and use of most other learning materials. Which has the following characteristics: 
  1. The text is read in a linear fashion. 
  2. The text displays one-way communication and receptive.
  3. Display static text. 
  4. Development is highly dependent on the principles of language and visual perception. 
  5. The text is oriented toward students. 
  6. Information can be arranged and rearranged by the user. [7] 

Print-based media has the advantages of: 
  • Message or information can present in significant amounts. 
  • Message or information can be learned by the students according to the needs, interests, and speed respectively. 
  • Can be studied anytime and anywhere, because it is easy to carry 
  • Even more interesting if it is equipped with an image and color. 
  • Repair or revision easy to do. 

While the weakness of the print-based media: 
  • The manufacturing process requires considerable time. 
  • Bold print materials that may be boring and deadly motivate students to read. 
  • If the volumes and ugly paper, printed materials will be easily damaged and torn. [8]

2. Based Visual Media 
As well as print-based media, visual media is not much different from the print-based media. That is also the basis for the development and use of most other learning materials that have these characteristics: 
  • Visually observed by space. 
  • Visual displays are also one-way communication and reseptic. 
  • Also displayed visually static. 
  • Visual perception is used as a reference in the principles of linguistic text-based media.
  • Visual media are also student oriented. 
  • Information can be reorganized and governed by the user. [9] 

Visual-based media (image / metaphor) holds a very important role in the learning process. Visual media can facilitate comprehension (eg through elaboration and organizational structure) and strengthen memory. Visual can also cultivate students' interest and may give the relationship between the content of the subject matter to the real world. In order to be effective at, the visual should be placed in a meaningful context and students should interact with it to convince any visual information processing. [10] 

The advantages of visual-based media:
  • More interesting because there is an image, thus providing a real experience for students. 
  • It is easier to remember with a visual concept map, mapping maid and abbreviations. 
  • Visual media can facilitate comprehension (eg through elaboration and organizational structure) and strengthen students' memories. 
  • Visual can also cultivate students' interest and may give the relationship between the content of the subject matter to the real world. 

Shortage of Visual-Based Media: 
  • There will be difficulties if students have problems in eyesight. 
  • Students will not understand the picture if the picture is not clear or does not match the shape reality. 
  • Can not serve students with auditory and kinesthetic learning styles. 
  • Takes a long time to create images and specialized skills to present an image corresponding original form. [11]

3. Based Audio-Visual Media 
Audio-visual technology is a means to produce or deliver materials by using mechanical machinery and electronics, for presenting audio messages and visual. Characteristics-based audio-visual media are: 
  • Linear 
  • Presenting a dynamic visualization 
  • Used in a manner predetermined by the designer or manufacturer
  • Is a physical representation of the idea of ​​real or abstract ideas 
  • Developed according to the tenets of cognitive psychology and behaveiorisme. 
  • Generally oriented to teachers, the level of student involvement interaktivnya low. [12] 

Teaching through audio-visual, has a consumption characteristics of hardware during the learning process, such as the use of projectors, tape recorders, projectors visual width. So is teaching through audio-visual production and use of materials, applicability through sight and hearing, and was not entirely dependent on understanding words or symbols that are similar. [13] 

Excess-based audio-visual media: 
  • More effective in receiving learning style because it can serve students auditory and visual language. 
  • Can provide a more real experience than that delivered the audio and visual media. 
  • Students will be quickly understood by hearing accompanied seen directly, so it is not just imagine. 
  • More interesting and fun to use audio-visual media. 

Disadvantages-based audio-visual media: 
  • Audio-visual media production requires a long time, because it combines two elements of the audio and visual. 
  • Requires skill and precision in its manufacture. 
  • Costs used in the manufacture of audio-visual media is quite expensive. 
  • If there is no device manufacturing will be difficult to make it (hit tool manufacture). [14]

4. Computer-Based media
Computer-based technology is a way of resulting in or presenting the material using sources based micro-processor. Computer-based media have the characteristics:
a. Can be used at random, non-sequential, or linear fashion.
b. Can be used based on the desire of the student or by the desire of the designer or developer as planned.
c. Usually the ideas presented in abstract style with words, symbols, graphics.
d. The principles of cognitive science to develop this medium.
e. Learning-oriented students and involve high student interaction. [15]
Computer simulation provides the opportunity to learn in a dynamic, interactive, and individuals. The success of the simulation is influenced by three factors, namely: the scenario, the base model, and a layer of teaching. [16]

D. Selection Procedures Appropriate Learning Media
In the selection of instructional media should pay attention to effectiveness and efficiency. There are four criteria for media selection in operlu notice how proposed by Dick and Carrie:
  1. Availability of local sources, if the media in question is not present in the existing sources then it should be bought or made ​​yourself. 
  2. Availability of funds, personnel and facilities. 
  3. Factors related to flexibility, practicality, and durability of the medium used for long periods of time; when used with devices anywhere and anytime around it as well as portability. 
  4. Effectiveness and cost efficiency in a fairly long period of time, even if it seems expensive, but cheaper than other media which only use disposable. 

Media selection procedure as presented by Arif S Sadiman there are three models that can be used as a procedure in the selection of media to be used, namely:
  1. Model 1 is a flow chart of the model using the elimination in the selection decision.
  2. Matrix model, the form of deferred decision making model, the selection until all selection criteria were identified.
  3. Model check list, the decision to suspend the election until all the criteria to be considered. [17]

Source :

[1] Azhar Arsyad, Media Pembelajaran, (Jakarta: PT. Raja Grafindo Persada, 2003), hlm. 3
[2] Asnawir dan M. Basyirudin Usman, Media Pembelajaran,(Jakarta: Ciputat Pers, 2002), hlm. 11
[3] Cecep Kustandi dan Bambang Sudjipto, Media Pembelajaran, (Bogor: Ghalia Indonesia, 2011), hlm. 33
[4] Asnawir dan M. Basyirudin Usman, Media Pembelajaran,...hlm. 32
[5] Azhar Arsyad, Media Pembelajaran, (Jakarta: Rajawali Pers, 2010), hlm. 82-87.
[6] Azhar Arsyad, Media Pembelajaran,... hlm. 90
[7] Cecep Kustandi dan Bambang Sudjipto, Media Pembelajaran,...hlm.33-34.
[8] Kurtek.upi.edu/media/sources/2-klasifikasi media.pdf. 3/4/2013.pkl11:56.
[9] Cecep Kustandi dan Bambang Sudjipto, Media Pembelajaran,...hlm. 36.
[10]  Azhar Arsyad, Media Pembelajaran,... hlm. 91.
[11] http://gtnheni.blogspot.com/2011/12/kelebihan-dan-kekurangan-jenis-jenis.html.3/4/2013.pkl11:56.
[12]  Cecep Kustandi dan Bambang Sudjipto, Media Pembelajaran..., hlm. 34
[13]  Azhar Arsyad, Media Pembelajaran,..., hlm. 30.
[14] http://gtnheni.blogspot.com/2011/12/kelebihan-dan-kekurangan-jenis-jenis.html, 3/4/2013.pkl.11:50
[15]  Cecep Kustandi dan Bambang Sudjipto, Media Pembelajaran..., hlm. 34
[16]  Azhar Arsyad, Media Pembelajaran,...hlm. 98.
[17] Asnawir dan M. Basyirudin Usman, Media Pembelajaran,...hlm. 126-127

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