Thursday, December 8, 2011

Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Indonesia (Part1)

Indonesia is a pluralistic nation as composed of various tribes, customs, language regions, as well as different religious groups. Diversity found in different areas of Sabang to Merauke. Every ethnic group in Indonesia has a habit of life that is different. Living habits and culture that became characteristic of certain ethnic groups. For the sake of unity, we should realize and appreciate the diversity of the nation so it can be a tough one

A. Etnic Diversity In Indonesia 

Distribution of ethnic groups in IndonesiaEthnic groups are part of a nation. Ethnic groups have certain fundamental characteristics. The characteristics that are usually associated with origins and culture. There are several characteristics that can be used to recognize a tribe, namely: physical characteristics, language, customs, and The same art. Examples of physical characteristics, such as skin color, hair, face, and physique. The characteristics which distinguishes a tribe with other tribes.

Ethnic group is a collection of relatives (family) wide. They believe that they originated from the same ancestry. They also feel as a group. In everyday life they have own language and customs are derived from ancestors them. From which the ancestors of bang-sa Indonesia come from? There is a theory that states of Indonesia's population came from mainland South China, Province Yunnan now. There is also a theory of "Archipelago." Let's discuss the second this theory.

According to the first theory of Yunnan Ethnic groups came to Indonesia in wavy. There are two important waves.The first wave occurred about 3000 years ago
They who moved in pe periods of this came to be known as the clump Proto Malay nation. Proto Malay Malay also called Polynesia. Proto Malay nation scattered clumps of Madagascar to the Pacific The east. They live in coastal areas. Included in the nation Parents are ethnic Malays in Sumatra Batak, Dayak inBorneo, and Toraja in Sulawesi.

The second wave occurred about 2000 years ago, called Deutero Malay. They are called the Young Malay population. They urged Old Malay Archipelago inland. Including the Young Malay are ethnic Javanese, Minang-Kabau, Bali, Makassar, Buginese, and Sunda. According to the theory of the "archipelago" of Indonesia's population does not come from outside. This theory is supported by many experts, such as J. Crawfurd, K. Himly, Sutan Fate Alisjahbana, and Gorys Keraf. According to experts this population of Indonesia (The Malays) already has a high civilization on the bada-19 BCE. This stage can only be achieved only after the development of cultural the old. This shows the population of Indonesia is not derived from everywhere, but it originated and evolved in the archipelago. Although there is a theory which states that Indonesia has common ancestor, in fact there are diverse ethnicities peoples who inhabited the region known for certain Indonesia.Tidak how many ethnic groups in Indonesia. It is estimated there are 300 to 500 tribes who lived in Indonesia. The difference is because the number of different experts in ethnic grouping. So what causes the diversity of ethnicities in Indonesia? The diversity of ethnic groups in Indonesia, among others, caused by:

1. racial origin,
2. differences in the geographical environment,
3. differences in historical background,
4. regional development,
5. differences of religion or belief, and
6. adaptability or adjust.

From the above factors, geographical and environmental factors ability adaptation or adjust very influential. Environmental factors cause geographic diversity among other tribes as follows.

1.Our country-shaped islands.  
Residents who live on an island separately with the residents who live in other islands. Residents of each develop the habits and customs of the island itself. Within the long enough to develop into different cultures.

2.The difference form of the earth, such as coastal areas, lowlands, and mountains.  
Population to adapt to the geographical conditions its natural. Adaptation that can be realized in the form of changes in changes in behavior or physical characteristics. Residents who live in the area mountains for example, will communicate with a loud voice so that neighbors can be heard. Residents who live in the area beach or in the water area will develop the skills to catch fish, and so on. Changes in natural conditions and processes adaptation is what causes the diversity of spare nation in Indonesia.

The size of the existing tribes in Indonesia is uneven. Tribe the nation's large enough number of members, among other ethnic groups Javanese, Sundanese, Madurese, Malay, Bugis, Makassar, Minangkabau, Bali, and Batak. Usually a tribe living in a particular area within a provinces in our country. But not always. Javanese, Batak, Bugis, and people Minang for example, many of which wanderto other areas.

Respecting the diversity of ethnic groupsOur nation made up of various tribes. This ethnic diversity is the wealth of our nation. We must develop an attitude of respect for other ethnic groups and different culture with our culture. How can we be honoring the diversity of ethnic groups that exist in the ground water? We can develop these attitudes.1. Receiving other tribes in daily life. In relationships in society, we not only meet people one tribe the nation. Especially if you live in the city. People from other tribes we must accept. They are our brothers of the nation.

2. Adds to our knowledge of other tribes. Studying the tribal Other nations do not have to come to the area where they live. We can learn about the customs, arts, and their language. By knowing more in other tribes, we will understand custom. Thus we will not easily suspect.

3. No bad-mouthing, insulting, and degrading tribes other. We, human beings created by God with dignity the same. Therefore, we should not insult the tribe other nations. Why do we have to respect the diversity of ethnic groups? Diversity ethnicity is a reality of our nation. This is the wealth of nations we. If we do not respect their own ethnic group, we will not be become a strong nation. We must not only boast of interest our own people and degrading other tribes. If we do not respect for ethnic diversity, peace will not be created in life together. The absence of mutual respect for tribal peoples will lead to conflict. Examples are many. Among others, the conflict in Poso, conflict in Sambas, and the conflict in Maluku. With the existence of conflicts that national unity be tarnished. In the event of a dispute tribal nation, our nation will be weak. Therefore, it is We should develop mutual respect between the tribes the nation.

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