In 2005, Indonesia's HDI ranks 110 out of 177 countries in the world. In fact, the ratings are declining from previous years. Indonesia's HDI in 1997 was 99, then in 2002 to 102, then in 2004 dropped back to 111 (Human Development Report 2005, UNDP). According to World Bank Report (Greaney, 1992) and studies of the IEA (International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement), in East Asia shows that the reading skills of fourth grade students in Indonesia is ranked lowest. The average score reading tests for elementary students: 75.5 (Hong Kong), 74.0 (Singapore), 65.1 (Thailand), 52.6 (Philippines), and 51.7 (Indonesia). Condition of Indonesia's children can only control 30 percent of the material and they are very difficult to answer the questions shape description that requires reasoning. This is because they are so used in memorizing and working on multiple choice questions.
Meanwhile, the quality of education in Indonesia was ranked 12th of 12 countries in Asia (based survey Political and Economic Risk Consultant). In terms of competitiveness, Indonesia has a low competitiveness, which is only ranked 37th of 57 countries in the world (The World Economic Forum in Sweden, 2000). This means: Indonesia predicated only as a follower, not as a leader.
Privatization of education
Government plans to privatize education is reflected in the National Education System Law, Legal Education Bill, Draft Government Regulation (RPP) of the Elementary and Secondary Education, and RPP on Compulsory Education. Article 53 (1) Law no. 20/2003 on National Education System (System) explains that the organizers of formal education unit established by governments or public legal entity of education.
Privatization of education in Indonesia indicate the weakening of the state's role in implementing the public service sector. Privatization of education in Indonesia is not free from the pressures of debt and debt repayment policies. Indonesia's foreign debt reaches 35-40 percent of the state budget every year. In the end, make education funding cut to a mere 8 percent (Kompas, 10/5/2005). For comparison, the Government of India bears 89 percent of education funding in 1992, while Indonesia only provides 62.8 percent. Even lower when compared with the more backward countries like Sri Lanka (UNESCO and World Bank in "The World Bank," 2004).
At the time of the reform era of cycling, the allocation of the national education budget to 20 percent of the total state budget, and this set the 1945 amendments. But in the draft 2006 State Budget which was passed into law the 2006 State Budget in late October 2005, the national education budget allocated only 10 percent or Rp 40.1 trillion, of which Rp 34.5 trillion for the Education Ministry and the remaining Rp 5.6 trillion for education in Ministry of Religious Affairs.
Build education in Indonesia
Everyday reality is often heard about quality education is always synonymous with expensive or not cost free. For example, the cost of a child to enter kindergarten and elementary school today will cost $ 500 thousand to Rp 1 million. Some even picked the above Rp 1 million. As for incoming junior or senior high school could reach USD 1 million to Rp 5 million. Then the question: who should pay for public education? The answer is the duty of government to guarantee every citizen to obtain a quality education and access. But in fact, the government argued precisely from its responsibilities. In fact, the reason for lack of funding can not be used as an excuse for the government to "wash their hands."
Government efforts to improve the condition of education in Indonesia has actually done with the birth of Law no. 22 Year 1999 on Regional Autonomy. The law stated that the greatest authority in the field of education in the hands of local governments, both concerning the budget and strategic policy in the areas of curriculum. But the reality of implementation is another, apparently in some areas have constraints due to lack of availability of the education budget. Meanwhile, based on article 31 paragraph 4 of the 1945 Constitution and Article 49 National Education Law, the education budget at least 20 percent of the budget.
There are several things to be done to improve the quality of national education. First, improvement of education management system. National education system, which has been refined and ratified in 2003, its implementation should be done with a management system or proportional and professional management, at both the macro and the micro level. Education budget must also be adequate. Furthermore, it should be pursued in earnest so that the cost of education to at least reach 20 percent of the APBN / APBD, as outlined in the 1945 Constitution.
Secondly, there is need for the integration process into the education system in every aspect of human life, openess and flexibility in learning, learning strategies, teacher-student roles in learning, ICT (information and communication technology) in learning process, as well as learning content and learning by doing. Moreover, in the process of education itself there is a process (to educate and be educated), the formation of a more human man or pemanusiaan process. This means that education has a fundamental nature of the so-called intellectual humanism. The process of educating and the educated can not be denied a fundamental act. The question is: What kind of a fundamental nature? Fundamental nature is an act that changed human life and determines both the educators and students. An educator means the person who determines an attitude. While students are the person who receives education to further grow into a human. In addition, education also occurred due process of scientific communication (scientific community) that form a pattern of critical and creative thinking.
The development of education in Indonesia also can not be separated from the influence of global developments, in which science and technology is developing very rapidly. The era of free markets is a challenge for the education in Indonesia because it does not rule out the existence of opportunities to make educational institutions and educators from overseas into Indonesia. To deal with the global market, at least the national education policy should be put forward in improving the quality of education, both academically and nonakademik.
Wika Yunita Ilham, Faculty of Biology