Monday, September 29, 2014

CLASSIFICATION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF LEARNING MEDIA

INTRODUCTION 
In essence, learning is a conscious effort of teachers or students or teachers to help their students so that they can learn according to their needs and interests. Learning is an activity that aims. This goal must be in line with the objectives of student learning and curriculum. The purpose of learning the student is achieving the optimal development, which includes cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. While the purpose of the curriculum is the fulfillment of all targetan goals in a written document to achieve the learning objectives based on defined levels. 

Learning activities carried out by the teacher. Therefore, teachers must demonstrate and develop dynamic elements when membelajarkan to students. Many of us have encountered, students are not interested in learning the material because the subject matter is boring. To avoid these symptoms, the teacher must select and organize the subject matter in such a way, that stimulate and challenge students to learn. 

In this case, the teacher is required to utilize the results of the technology, this connection is able to understand the medium (intermediate) so that the achievement of learning goals in the learning process. 
Further in this paper will explain the classification and also the characteristics of instructional media.

PROBLEM FORMULATION 
A. Definition of instructional media. 
B. Classification of instructional media. 
C. Characteristics of instructional media. 
D. The election procedure appropriate learning media.

DISCUSSION 
A. Definition of Learning Media 
The word comes from the Latin media medius, which literally means the middle, intermediate or introduction. In Arabic, the media is an intermediate (وسائل) or introductory message from the sender to the receiver of the message. Association for Education and Communication Technology (AECT) defines all forms of media that is used for the information distribution process. Gerlach and Ely (1971) says that if the media is understood broadly human, material, or events that establish the conditions that enable the child to acquire the knowledge, skills, or attitudes. In this sense, teachers, textbooks, and school environment is the media. More specifically, the notion of media in teaching and learning tends to be interpreted as graphical tools, photographic, or electronically to capture, process, and reconstruct visual or verbal information. [1] 

It can be concluded that the definition of media is something that is delivering the message and can stimulate thoughts, feelings, and willingness audience (students) so as to encourage the learning process in itself. Creative use of media will allow the audience (students) to learn better and can improve the performance of them in accordance with the objectives to be achieved. [2] 

B. Classification of Instructional Media 
Along the way, the development of instructional media with the current technological developments. The oldest technology that is utilized printing system that works on the basis of the mechanistic principles. Then the audio-visual technology combine mechanistic and electronic discovery for the purpose of learning. Last emerging technology is a micro processor that spawned the use of computers and interactive activities. Based on these developments, the learning media can be classified into 4 groups, namely: the result of printing technology media, audio-visual media technology results, media results are based on computer technology, print media merge results and computer technology. [3] 

According to Rudi Bretz classify the main characteristics of media on the following principal elements: sound, visual, and motion. To visually distinguished itself again in three forms, namely: visual images, line (graphic liner), and symbols. He also distinguishes broadcast media and recording media, so there are eight classifications of media; 
  1. Audio-visual motion media
  2. Audio-visual media silent 
  3. Audio spring motion media
  4. Visual motion media
  5. Visual media silent 
  6. Visual media spring motion 
  7. Audio media
  8. Print 

Meanwhile, according to Oemar H. Malik, there are four classifications of teaching media, namely: 
  1. Visual tools that can be seen, 
  2. The tools that are auditory or that can only be heard, 
  3. Tools that can be seen and heard, 
  4. Dramatization. 


But according to Gagne, there are seven kinds of media classification, namely: object to demonstrated, oral communication, print images, still images, motion pictures, silent films, machine learning. Seven kinds of media classification is then linked with its ability to meet the function according to the development level of the hierarchy learning stimulus learning thrower, towing interest in learning, learning behavior instances, given the external conditions, demanding way of thinking, rather incorporate knowledge, assess the achievements and give feedback behind. 

Based on some of the above classification can be concluded in general there are five, namely learning media: print-based media, visual-based media, audio-visual media-based, computer-based media, human-based media.

C. Characteristics of Learning Media 
Classification as described in the preceding description describes the characteristics or specific traits of each medium differ from one another in accordance with the object and purpose of the grouping. We can determine the characteristics of the media according to their economic review, the scope of covered targets, ease of control by the wearer and so on. Also can be seen from the ability of stimulation evokes the senses of sight, hearing, touch, conversation, or smell, or compliance with the hierarchy level of learning. As stated by Kemp (1975) is the basis for selecting the media in accordance with a particular learning situation. As was said by Arief S. Sadiman (1986) that the classification of the media, media characteristics, and media selection are inseparable in the determination of learning strategies. [4] Here is a further explanation of the characteristics of instructional media. 

1.Human-Based Media 
Among some human-based media media is the oldest media to transmit and communicate a message or information. This media is helpful, especially if our goal is to change attitudes or want to be directly involved with monitoring student learning. Media man can direct and influence the process of learning through guided exploration by analyzing from time to time what is happening in the learning environment. Often in an atmosphere of learning, the students have had a bad learning experience and see learning as something negative. Human instructor "as a media" can intuitively feel the needs of their students and gave pengalamn learn that will help achieve the learning objectives. 
Human-based media filed two effective techniques, the design is centered on the problem and asking Socratic. The design-centered learning problems constructed based on the problem to be solved by the student. With the following steps: 
  1. Formulate relevant issues. 
  2. Identify the knowledge and skills related to problem solving. 
  3. Teach why knowledge is important and how that knowledge can be applied to solving the problem. 
  4. Guided exploration of students. 
  5. Develop problem in the context of the diverse stages of difficulty levels. 
  6. The value of the student's knowledge by giving a new problem to be solved.


While the Socratic asked: 
  1. Identify questions that ask students to share, analyze, evaluate, and synthesize their work or task. 
  2. The lesson might begin with a large group discussion as a discussion of exploration. Students can then be grouped in small groups to explore issues and ideas that appear in a large group discussion. 
  3. Determining whether students have to learn or to work together in groups, individually, one by one, or freely. 

One of the important factors in learning with human-based media is an interactive lesson plans.
1. Based Print Media 
Media-based mold is most commonly known textbooks, handbooks, journals, magazines, and a sheet of paper. In the print-based media are six things to consider when designing, namely: consistency, format, organization, attractiveness, font size, and the use of empty space. [5] 
Text-based interactive learning became popular in the 1960s with the terms of programmed learning materials for independent study. With this format, for each small unit of information is presented and student response prompted either by answering questions or participating in training activities. [6] 
Materials-based print media is the basis of development and use of most other learning materials. Which has the following characteristics: 
  1. The text is read in a linear fashion. 
  2. The text displays one-way communication and receptive.
  3. Display static text. 
  4. Development is highly dependent on the principles of language and visual perception. 
  5. The text is oriented toward students. 
  6. Information can be arranged and rearranged by the user. [7] 

Print-based media has the advantages of: 
  • Message or information can present in significant amounts. 
  • Message or information can be learned by the students according to the needs, interests, and speed respectively. 
  • Can be studied anytime and anywhere, because it is easy to carry 
  • Even more interesting if it is equipped with an image and color. 
  • Repair or revision easy to do. 

While the weakness of the print-based media: 
  • The manufacturing process requires considerable time. 
  • Bold print materials that may be boring and deadly motivate students to read. 
  • If the volumes and ugly paper, printed materials will be easily damaged and torn. [8]

2. Based Visual Media 
As well as print-based media, visual media is not much different from the print-based media. That is also the basis for the development and use of most other learning materials that have these characteristics: 
  • Visually observed by space. 
  • Visual displays are also one-way communication and reseptic. 
  • Also displayed visually static. 
  • Visual perception is used as a reference in the principles of linguistic text-based media.
  • Visual media are also student oriented. 
  • Information can be reorganized and governed by the user. [9] 

Visual-based media (image / metaphor) holds a very important role in the learning process. Visual media can facilitate comprehension (eg through elaboration and organizational structure) and strengthen memory. Visual can also cultivate students' interest and may give the relationship between the content of the subject matter to the real world. In order to be effective at, the visual should be placed in a meaningful context and students should interact with it to convince any visual information processing. [10] 

The advantages of visual-based media:
  • More interesting because there is an image, thus providing a real experience for students. 
  • It is easier to remember with a visual concept map, mapping maid and abbreviations. 
  • Visual media can facilitate comprehension (eg through elaboration and organizational structure) and strengthen students' memories. 
  • Visual can also cultivate students' interest and may give the relationship between the content of the subject matter to the real world. 

Shortage of Visual-Based Media: 
  • There will be difficulties if students have problems in eyesight. 
  • Students will not understand the picture if the picture is not clear or does not match the shape reality. 
  • Can not serve students with auditory and kinesthetic learning styles. 
  • Takes a long time to create images and specialized skills to present an image corresponding original form. [11]

3. Based Audio-Visual Media 
Audio-visual technology is a means to produce or deliver materials by using mechanical machinery and electronics, for presenting audio messages and visual. Characteristics-based audio-visual media are: 
  • Linear 
  • Presenting a dynamic visualization 
  • Used in a manner predetermined by the designer or manufacturer
  • Is a physical representation of the idea of ​​real or abstract ideas 
  • Developed according to the tenets of cognitive psychology and behaveiorisme. 
  • Generally oriented to teachers, the level of student involvement interaktivnya low. [12] 

Teaching through audio-visual, has a consumption characteristics of hardware during the learning process, such as the use of projectors, tape recorders, projectors visual width. So is teaching through audio-visual production and use of materials, applicability through sight and hearing, and was not entirely dependent on understanding words or symbols that are similar. [13] 

Excess-based audio-visual media: 
  • More effective in receiving learning style because it can serve students auditory and visual language. 
  • Can provide a more real experience than that delivered the audio and visual media. 
  • Students will be quickly understood by hearing accompanied seen directly, so it is not just imagine. 
  • More interesting and fun to use audio-visual media. 

Disadvantages-based audio-visual media: 
  • Audio-visual media production requires a long time, because it combines two elements of the audio and visual. 
  • Requires skill and precision in its manufacture. 
  • Costs used in the manufacture of audio-visual media is quite expensive. 
  • If there is no device manufacturing will be difficult to make it (hit tool manufacture). [14]

4. Computer-Based media
Computer-based technology is a way of resulting in or presenting the material using sources based micro-processor. Computer-based media have the characteristics:
a. Can be used at random, non-sequential, or linear fashion.
b. Can be used based on the desire of the student or by the desire of the designer or developer as planned.
c. Usually the ideas presented in abstract style with words, symbols, graphics.
d. The principles of cognitive science to develop this medium.
e. Learning-oriented students and involve high student interaction. [15]
Computer simulation provides the opportunity to learn in a dynamic, interactive, and individuals. The success of the simulation is influenced by three factors, namely: the scenario, the base model, and a layer of teaching. [16]

D. Selection Procedures Appropriate Learning Media
In the selection of instructional media should pay attention to effectiveness and efficiency. There are four criteria for media selection in operlu notice how proposed by Dick and Carrie:
  1. Availability of local sources, if the media in question is not present in the existing sources then it should be bought or made ​​yourself. 
  2. Availability of funds, personnel and facilities. 
  3. Factors related to flexibility, practicality, and durability of the medium used for long periods of time; when used with devices anywhere and anytime around it as well as portability. 
  4. Effectiveness and cost efficiency in a fairly long period of time, even if it seems expensive, but cheaper than other media which only use disposable. 


Media selection procedure as presented by Arif S Sadiman there are three models that can be used as a procedure in the selection of media to be used, namely:
  1. Model 1 is a flow chart of the model using the elimination in the selection decision.
  2. Matrix model, the form of deferred decision making model, the selection until all selection criteria were identified.
  3. Model check list, the decision to suspend the election until all the criteria to be considered. [17]

Source :

[1] Azhar Arsyad, Media Pembelajaran, (Jakarta: PT. Raja Grafindo Persada, 2003), hlm. 3
[2] Asnawir dan M. Basyirudin Usman, Media Pembelajaran,(Jakarta: Ciputat Pers, 2002), hlm. 11
[3] Cecep Kustandi dan Bambang Sudjipto, Media Pembelajaran, (Bogor: Ghalia Indonesia, 2011), hlm. 33
[4] Asnawir dan M. Basyirudin Usman, Media Pembelajaran,...hlm. 32
[5] Azhar Arsyad, Media Pembelajaran, (Jakarta: Rajawali Pers, 2010), hlm. 82-87.
[6] Azhar Arsyad, Media Pembelajaran,... hlm. 90
[7] Cecep Kustandi dan Bambang Sudjipto, Media Pembelajaran,...hlm.33-34.
[8] Kurtek.upi.edu/media/sources/2-klasifikasi media.pdf. 3/4/2013.pkl11:56.
[9] Cecep Kustandi dan Bambang Sudjipto, Media Pembelajaran,...hlm. 36.
[10]  Azhar Arsyad, Media Pembelajaran,... hlm. 91.
[11] http://gtnheni.blogspot.com/2011/12/kelebihan-dan-kekurangan-jenis-jenis.html.3/4/2013.pkl11:56.
[12]  Cecep Kustandi dan Bambang Sudjipto, Media Pembelajaran..., hlm. 34
[13]  Azhar Arsyad, Media Pembelajaran,..., hlm. 30.
[14] http://gtnheni.blogspot.com/2011/12/kelebihan-dan-kekurangan-jenis-jenis.html, 3/4/2013.pkl.11:50
[15]  Cecep Kustandi dan Bambang Sudjipto, Media Pembelajaran..., hlm. 34
[16]  Azhar Arsyad, Media Pembelajaran,...hlm. 98.
[17] Asnawir dan M. Basyirudin Usman, Media Pembelajaran,...hlm. 126-127






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