Monday, June 30, 2014

Computer History and Development

Early start to say the computer used to visualize the people who have a job to do arithmetic calculations. However, now the computer interpreted to a machine tool.

In the most basic sense, a computer is a device that helps humans to perform various calculations. In this case, the abacus is the first computer that is used to perform basic operations artimatika. 

In the history and development of the computer, or Abacus Abacus is the beginning of the birth of the computer. Computers in conducting the process in electronic form, which allows to perform calculations wider and faster. Until now, the computer can process images, voice, text and non-numerical form other data. To remember all of it can not be separated from the basic numerical calculations. Images, sounds and more simply a abstaksi of crunching numbers inside a machine. In computing these numbers are "1" and "0" representing a combination of active and non-electric active. In other words any images, sounds, text and other computer has the appropriate binary code.

First Generation Computers (1940 - 1950)
First Generation Computers using vacuum tubes several large and complex as crystal diodes, relays, resistors, and capacitors that require electric power of 150 kilowatts. The first electronic computer which used to be common that the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer). Already in digital form, but not used as a binary code of the process. Used to solve the complete range of computing problems. Programmed using plugboard and switches, which already supports input and output of the IBM card. 

The first electronic computers were used for non-public, namely ABC (Atanasoff-Berry Computer), ten British Colossus computers, German Z3, LEO, UNIVAC, and the Harvard Mark I.

Second Generation Computers (1955 - 1960)
Second generation computers emerged with the invention of the transistor, which then began replacing vacuum tubes in computer designs. With transistors, power, heat and form much smaller than the first generation computers. However, it is still much greater with computers today. 

Computers with the first transistor was made at the University of Manchester in 1953. Most popular second generation of computer transistors are the IBM 1401. IBM also created the first drive (storage media) in 1956, known as the IBM 350 RAMAC.

Third Generation Computers (1960)
The discovery of Integrated Circuits (IC) or also known as microchips, paving the way for a third generation computer or computers that we are familiar with today. Shaped much smaller with previous generations of computers, with more transistors and microchips embedded into a single. In the development stage, second-generation computers still persist. 

First emergence of minicomputers based on both transistors and microchips such as the IBM System/360. This computer is much smaller and cheaper than previous generations. Third generation computers known as mainframes computer. Minicomputers can be seen as a bridge between the mainframe and microcomputer as proliferation in the development of computers.

Fourth Generation Computers (1971)
Microchips based Central Processing Unit (CPU) The first, consisting of several components microchips for different CPUs. The push for greater integration and miniasturisasi led to the single-chip CPU, the CPU where all the necessary components incorporated into a single microchips called a microprocessor. The first is the Intel 4004 microprocessor.

The advent of the microprocessor spawned the evolution of the microcomputer, a form that would eventually become the personal computer as we know it

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