Thursday, June 30, 2011

Indonesia Education System

Vigorous efforts have been made to advance education and reduce illiteracy. In 1971, overall literacy was estimated to be about 58%, ranging from 77% in the cities to only 52% in rural areas. By the year 2000, adult illiteracy rates were estimated at 13.0% (males, 8.1%; females, 17.9%). Under the constitution, education must be nondiscriminatory, and six years of primary education are free and compulsory. In practice, however, the supply of schools and teachers is inadequate to meet the needs of the fast-growing under-15 age group. In the mid-1990s, an estimated 97% of primary-school-age children were enrolled in primary schools. In 1997, 29,236,283 students were enrolled in Indonesia's 173,893 primary schools, with 1,327,178 teachers. The student-to-teacher ratio stood at 22 to 1. Secondary schools employed 986,896 teachers and enrolled 14,209,974 students in that same year. As of 1999, 91% of primary-school-age children were enrolled in school, while 48% of those eligible attended secondary school. Schools are coeducational, except for certain vocational and religious schools. Private (mostly Islamic religious) schools receive government subsidies if they maintain government standards. Bahasa Indonesia is the language of instruction, but local dialects may be used until the third level. 

The school system includes a six-year primary school, a three-year junior secondary school, a three-year senior secondary school, and higher education in universities, faculties, teachertraining colleges, and academies. Junior and senior technical schools have been brought into line with junior and senior secondary schools. Patterned after Dutch practices, Indonesia's educational system divides secondary-school students into groups according to curriculum. In the third year of the junior secondary school, the students are separated into an A-curriculum (languages) and a B-curriculum (mathematics). In senior secondary school, the students normally continue in their previous curriculum, but B-curriculum students may shift to an economics curriculum (C). Teacher-training schools range from the basic teacher-training program of four years (post-primary education) up through teachers' colleges, academies, faculties, and universities. Upon entering institutions of higher learning, students must enter the division for which their curriculum has prepared them; thus, A-curriculum students enter the language and philosophical faculties. 

There are 51 universities, the largest of which are the University of Indonesia (in Jakarta) and the University of Gajah Mada (in Yogyakarta). Most of the universities are new, having been established since the mid-1950s. In all universities and third-level institutions, there were a total of 157,695 teachers and 2,303,469 students in 1996. 

The Indonesia National Education System is generally aimed at elevating the intellectual life of the nation and developing the entire Indonesian people. The education is expectedly to build the people who are devoted to God, have knowledge and skills, are independent, fair, and healthy physically and spiritually, as well as responsible for their country and the nation.

Guided by the mission of education, the Government enacted a new Law on National Education System in July 2003 resulting from national wide consultation. An outstanding feature of the Law is the implementation of compulsory basic education for all Indonesian citizens. The Law states that every seven to fifteen years old citizen shall have the right to receive basic education. This is a major step towards creating a critical mass in the area of education for national development as recognized in the National Plan of Action, Indonesia’s Education for All (2002) whose realization has become a primary responsibility for all education providers.

One of the purposes of the Law is to inculcate in young minds the respect for human rights, for cultural pluralism and learning to live together, promote morals and character building as well as unity in diversity in the spirit of brotherhood and solidarity.

The education system is organized in two different paths, i.e. school and out-of-school education. School education is organized in schools through teaching and learning activities that are gradual, hierarchical, and continuous. Out-of-school education is organized outside the formal schooling through teaching and learning activities that may or may not be hierarchical and continuous. Education within the family constitutes an important part of the out-of-school education and provides religious, cultural and moral values and the family’s skills.

The education system consists of seven types of education described as follows.

  1. First, general education is primary and secondary education program that focus on provision of broad based academic skills, needed for learners to pursue further education at high level of schooling.
  2. Second, vocational education is secondary education program for preparing learners for a specific job.
  3. Third, academic education, a higher education program of undergraduate and post-graduate level (sarjana and pasca sarjana), aiming at acquisition of specific science discipline.

Fourth, professional education, a higher education program after undergraduate (sarjana) program which prepares learners for jobs by acquiring particular skills and expertise.

Fifth, vocational and technical education is higher education program for preparing learners for jobs by acquiring applied knowledge at the maximum, equivalent to undergraduate program (sarjana).

Sixth, religious education is primary, secondary, and higher education program which prepare learners to perform their role, requiring the acquisition of religious knowledge, and/or to become a religious scholar.

Seventh, special education is provision of education program for the disabled and/or the gifted learners, organized inclusively or exclusively at primary and secondary level of schooling (see Figure 1.1. in the Appendices)

A complex range of institutions provides and delivers education in Indonesia. It caters to approximately 45 million students at all levels. The largest department responsible for the education management is the Ministry of National Education (MoNE), which administers formal public and private schools and universities, as well as non-formal modes of education. The efforts of this Ministry of National Education are supplemented by the Ministry of Religious Affairs (MoRA) that is responsible for development of Islamic education institution (so-called Madrasah) which also imparts general education besides the religious education. Islamic Primary Schools – called Madrasah Ibtidaiyah (MI) – are equivalent to primary schools or Sekolah Dasar (SD) and Islamic Junior Secondary Schools – called Madrasah Tsanawiyah (MTs) – are equivalent to General Junior Secondary School or Sekolah Menengah Pertama (SMP); and Islamic Senior Secondary Schools – called Madrasah Aliyah (MA) – are equivalent to Senior Secondary School or Sekolah Menengah Atas (SMA). This madrasah provides 30 percent of the curriculum for religious teachings and 70 percent for general course of the same standard as of general schools. Thirty percent of the curriculum for religious teachings is achieved through extra curriculum.

Source: Fasli Djalal, P.H.D., THE SIXTH E-9 MINISTERIAL REVIEW MEETING, Policies and Systems for the Assessment of the Quality of Education, Monterrey, Mexico, 13-15 February 2006

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  1. I think the way of providing education is little poor over there... govt should not forget that today's children are the rulers of tomorrow's nation... i think it should take some serious action on this issue... :-x

    Science Education Requirements

    1. i agree with u, but not all country have same thoughts about education

    2. i agree with u, but not all country have same thoughts about education


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