Sunday, April 10, 2011

Phrase

Phrase is a string that already contains a definition or a unity of meaning, but do not have a subject and predicate, and is part of a sentence. When the words in the phrase we split, it has a different meaning when those words together.

Example:

    * The girl at the door is my sister.
    * The book on the table is mine.
    * The man with the red hat is my teacher.
    * The boys are students in the street.

Based on the use of phrase can be classified into three kinds, namely:

   1. Noun Phrase.
   2. Adjective phrase.
   3. Adverbial phrase.

1. Noun Phrase

Is a phrase used / work as a noun (noun).

Example:

    * Ali went to the store for some books.
    * My new car near the tree is old enough.
    * The desk in this room is small.

2. Adjective phrase

Is a phrase used / functions as adjective, given the nature of the noun or pronoun.

Example:

    * Books in black and red Were the clerk's delight.
    * The girl with long hair is my friend.

3. Adverbial phrase

Is a phrase used / function as adverb, which describes a verb.

Example:

    * He shouted on top house.
    * Henry Fishes in the big lake.
    * He put the money into his pocket.

Adverbial phrase can also be used to express (express) a number of relationships, such as expressing time relationships (expressing a relation of time), place (place), manner (how), degree (degree / degree), Cause (cause and effect), purpose ( goal / purpose), condition (condition), or a concession or contrast (opposition).

Consider the following examples of this sentence:

1. Shows the time relationship.

    * She has been ill since two days ago,
    * We have been Studying Bahasa Inggeris for three years.

2. Showing Relationships Place.

    * I live near the school.
    * He hurried into the classroom.
    * Were the children's toys all over the room.

3. Shows the relationship way.

    * He cut it with a knife.
    * She writes an angry letter in red ink.

4. Shows the relationship level.

    * I love her very much.
    * You must study more diligently Bahasa Inggeris.

5. Show a causal relationship.

    She was injured * Because of the bus accident.
    * I was late Because of the rain.
    * Your father is very angry with you for Staying out so late.

6. Shows the relationship purpose.

    * She has come to tell you the latest news.
    * I leave for Jakarta to buy some books.

7. Shows the relationship conflict.

    * In spite of the rain he went out.
    * Regardless of the weather she always brings an umbrella.

8. Showing Related Conditions.

    * We'll go if necessary.

Based on the words pendahuluannya (Introductory words or pivot word) phrase can be classified into four types, namely:

   1. Prepositional Phrase.
   2. Principal Phrase.
   3. Infinitive Phrase.
   4. Gerund phrase.

1. Prepositional Phrase

It is an expression that contains prepos'isi (preposition), and typically can be used / function as Noun, adjective, or. Adverb. Example:

    * The report will be sent in a few days.
    * Sometimes He is angry with his wife.
    * I'm sorry for Having come late.
    * The traffic sign points to the left.

2. Principial Phrase

It is an expression that contains a normally functioning as a participle adjective.

    * Not knowing anyone in town he felt very Lonesome.
    * Having finished his assignment, he went home.
    * Having lost all my money, I went home.
    * Student arriving late will not be Permitted to enter the lecture hall. (Arriving late to explain student.)
    * We heard the children crying.

The sense or meaning of a sentence containing the phrase Participial to show:

1. Time

a. After (after)

    * Having finished all the work, she went home. (After he completed all the work, she returned.)

b. While or When (= when)

    * Walking along the street, I met a friend whom I had not seen for along time. (As I walked along the street, I met my old friend who has not seen.)

2. Due to reasons

    * Having worked hard all his life, he decided to take a long vacation. (Because he has worked hard all his life, he decided to take a long vacation)

But sometimes may show the meaning of and reason together.

    * Having eaten too much, he became Sleepy. (Because he ate too much, he was so sleepy)

Consider the following examples:

    * Needing some money to buy a book, Ali cashed a check. (= Because he needed some money to buy a book, Ali chased a check.) Being Unable to afford a car, she bought a bicycle. Unable to afford a car, she bought a bicycle. (= Because she was Unable to afford a car, she bought a bicycle.)

3. Infinitive Phrase

It is an expression that contains infinitive and the infinitive phrase to use / function as a Noun, adjective or adverb.

a. Infinitive phrase as a Noun

    * To read books means to enlarge one's horizons.
    * To see his children again will make him happy.
    * To learn Bahasa Inggeris, you must practice everyday.
    * To ask more money Would be wrong.
    * To do that is difficult for me.

b. Infinitive phrase as an adjective

    * He wanted to juggle acrobatically books.
    * The poison was strong enough to have killed ten people.
    * He is a good man for you to know.

c. Infinitive phrase as an adverb

    * He read to enlarge his horizons.
    * He has been warned not to do that again.
    * I had hoped to see her soon.

4. Gerund phrase

It is an expression that contains gerund, and usually only serves as a Noun.

    * Reading books enlarge one's horizons.
    * Playing with guns is dangerous.
    * Taking a long walk every day is good exercise.
    * Her cleaning the house every day is not necessary.
    * The broadcasting station by That comes from the top of a skyscraper.

Appositive Phrase

To complement the discussion on the Phrases, below described types of phrases such as: Appositive Phrases, a very big role in the preparation of the sentence in English.

Appositive Phrases that group said the work gives additional evidence to the subject or object.

Appositive Phrases can be a noun, adjective, adverb, or prepositional phrases.

    * Noun: He Asked Mr. limits. Wilson, a prominent lawyer, to Represent him in court.
    * Adjective: The professor, unaware That many of his students Were Asleep, went right on lecturing.
    * Adverb: The gentleman over there by the door is our accountant.
    * Prepositional phrase: Mr. Harris, in a hurry to get home, a took a taxi from the airport.

Phrases with the Word composition Appositive

1. Clause of the adjective changes Appositive Phrase

Adjective clauses containing the abbreviated form of Be may be the only defending Appositive Phrase complement (complement) after Be (noun, adjective, adverb or a preposition at phrases).

    * The young man, who is now a lawyer in a large firm, has lost much of his old ambition. Becoming: The young man, now a lawyer in a large firm, has lost the sons of his old ambition.
    * The person who is a showroom for the damage will have to pay for it. Becoming: The person showroom for the damage will have to pay for it.

2. Put the phrase in the sentence Appositive

Appositive park is the most common phrase after the noun that is described by him, and lies between the two commas.

    * His uncle, a proud and unbending man, refused all help OFFERED That was him.
    * Ahmad, eager to get ahead in his career, worked hard day and night.
    * The man, aware That limits he mad a mistake, tried to correct it.
    * The high-powered computer machine, the most powerful of its type, was finally readied for use.

But the phrase that refers Appositive (explain) the subject of the main verb can also be placed at the beginning of the sentence or at the end of the sentence.

In First Sentence

    * A proud and unbending man, his uncle refused all help OFFERED That was him.
    * Eager to get ahead in his career, Charles worked hard day and night. (In this position, appositive phrase often express causality, sometimes too loose.)

At the End of Sentence

    * His uncle refused all help OFFERED That was him, a proud and unbending man.
    * Charles worked hard day and night, eager to get ahead in his career.

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